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The Biology of Prenatal Development




ILIMIN BOKO A NAN GIRMANCIN TAYI

.Hausa


 
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Chapter 1   Introduction

Gabancin hanyoyin wadanda "sel"(cell) guda wanda ake kira "zaigot"(zygote) ya kara zuwa tiriliyan dari daya watau mutum ne a takaice abin mamaki fiye da wani a rayuwa.

Masu bincike suka gane yanzu cewa wassun aikokin jikin e wadanda mutum ke nuna daga lokacin ciki ne kafawar su - a da kafin haihuwa.

Lokacin girmancin kafin haihuwa muke gane kamar lokacin shiriyawa a in da girmancin tayi zai samu yawwancin fannin jiki, da kuma kwaikwayo iri-iri aikokin masu amfani domi zaman iyawa bayan haihuwa.

Chapter 2   Terminology

Ciki yakan yi kamar mako talatin da takwas ta yadda mun bincike daga farawa (kasance) ciki, ko lokacin kafawar har zuwa haihuwa.

A tsakanin mako takwas na daya bayan samun ciki, jaririn da ke cikin ne ake kira amfrayo, watau girmancin ciki. Lokacin din ne ake kira lokacin tayi, anan ne ana kasance fannin jiki mutum na wassun muhimmancin fannin jiki.

Tun daga makon takwas din har zuwa karshen ciki, "jaririn a cikin ne ake kira tayi," watau jaririn da ba mu taba haice ba. A cikin lokacin din watau lokacin tayi, jikin jariri zai zama babba kuma zai fara amfani da jikin ta.

Dukkan lokacin tayi dan aikace - aikacen anan shi ne lokacin daga farawan ciki.

The Embryonic Period (The First 8 Weeks)

Embryonic Development: The First 4 Weeks

Chapter 3   Fertilization

Ta ilimin vaoloji, girmancin mutum farawan ta daga hadi (fertilization) ne a lokacin da maza da mata suka ba wa juna kwayoyi (chromosome) ashirin da uku daga kowanen su daga hadawar abubuwan rai juma.

Abin rai mace ne ake kira "kwayi" amma, mafifici sunan shi ne "oosite".

Na maza kuma "sfam" ne ake fi kira shi amma mafifici sunan shi ne sfamatozun.

Bayan zubawa kwayi daga mace ta aikace - aikacen da ake kwayi ovuleshon kwayin da sfamatozun din su hadu a cikin wani igyar ciki, wannan ne ake saba kira igyar gidan kwayi. Igiyar din a cikin ciki na mace ne ya hada jakar kwayi mace (ovaries)

tare da cikin ta.

Sai ya zama abu guda bayan hadawar wata amfrayo kuma zaigot, ma'anar shi ne hada da juna.

Chapter 4   DNA, Cell Division, and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF)

Zaigot na arbain da shida shi ne massaman taki (sashen) na daya ta kasancewa sabon mutum tafannin abubuwan da zamu kamar mahaifin sa. Wannan mammaki ya kumshe wadansu abubuwan da ake kira DNA. Shi ne kumshiyar abubuwan hurata ga zaman mayan na dukkan sossan jikin jaririn.

DNA din ya yi kama da tsani da ake kira heliks guda biyu. Abubuwan da ke cikin lada din kumshiyar shi bibbiyan molekuls, ko ruwan gishiri watau guanine, saitosin, adenine da taimain.

Bibyun guanine kadai da saitosin, da adenine da kuma taimain. Sel mutum guda yana da kamar biliyan uku ruwan gishirin din.

DNA na sel guda yana da labari da yawwa idan aka rubuta shi a kakin littafi ko takarda, idan zamu rubuta baka na daya daga kowanen su sai da mu samu shafi takari fiye da dubu sabain sau biyu!

Idan dage farawa zuwa ga karshe, DNA din sel mutum guda daya ne wadda takai kafafu uku ko mita guda.

Idan mu cire dukkan igiyan DNA a tsakanin tsohowar sel tiriliyan dari, doguwar shi zai kai mil biliyan sittin da uku. Ya yi kamar nisci kasa zuwa ga rana-je da zuwa sau dari uku da arbain.

Kamar awa ashirin da hudu zuwa ga talatin bayan hadi, sa'anan ne zaigot zai gama da rababben sel na daya. A lokacin rabe-raben sel (mitosis), sel guda ya bara zuwa biyu, biyu zuwa hudu, da duka.

Daga awa ashirin da hudu zuwa ga awa arbain da takwas bayan hadi, aka tabbata da ciki da ganiwa "homon"(hormone) wannan ne ake kira sassafan ciki a cikin jinin mace.

Chapter 5   Early Stages (Morula and Blastocyst) and Stem Cells

A cikin kwana uku ko hudu bayan hadi, rababen sel amfrayo su samu kamar rabin sifiri amfrayo din ne a ke kira "morula" yanzu.

Daga kwana hudu zuwa biyar bayan ciki ne za samu wuri a tsakanin sel din anan ne ake kira shi blastosist.

Sel wadanda ke cikin blastosist din su ne ake kira sel masu kumshe ciki su ne ke canza zuwa kai da jiki da dukkan fannin jikin yara wani abin muhimmanci ne.

Sel wadanda ke kumshe ciki (the inner cell mass) ne ake kira "amfrayonik stem sel" saboda iyawa su zaman iri-irin sel fiye da dari biyu wadanda ke kumshe jikin mutum.

Chapter 6   1 to 1½ Weeks: Implantation and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

Bayan da ya sauka a cikin igiyar ciki, amfrayo din na farko zai canza zuwa ga gefen cikin mace din. Hanyoyin wannan ne ake kira shukawa daga ran shida zuwa ga ran goma har dai sha biyu bayan a hadi.

Sel daga amfrayo za su fara yi homon wanda ake kira human korionik gonadotrofin, hCG, shi ne abin da ake gani a lokacin bincike domi ciki (samu ciki).

HCG shi ne ke kula homon domi ya daina abin wata mace, saboda ciki ya iya ci gaba.

Chapter 7   The Placenta and Umbilical Cord

Bayan kafawa ciki, Sel wadanda ke defi blastosist su ne ka zama sashen wan abin da ake kira mahaifa, shi ne yana tsakiyar mace da dukkan aikokin amfrayo.

Mahaifa din ne ka ba wa yara ciki iska da abinci da homon da kuma magani; da kuma cire abubuwa mara kyau da ke cikin; kuma yana daina hadawar jucin yaron ciki da na uwarsa.

Kuma mahaifa din yana ba da homon da kula da amfrayo da lafiyar sa ta zafi fiye da na uwarsa kadan.

Mahaifa yana yi sako daga yaron ciki da jijiyoyin cibiya.

Iyawa ba wa rai na mahaifa ya yi kamar na sashen kulawa sam - sam da ke sabuwar asibiti yanzu.

Chapter 8   Nutrition and Protection

A mako dayan ciki, sel da ke cikin ya zama layi biyu wato hafoblas da kuma efiblas.

Hafoblas din ne zai zama jakar kwai, shi kuma daya ne daga wadda mace za ta ba wa yaron abinci wa sabon amfrayo.

Sel daga cikin efiblast za su dinki riga mai suna "amnion", a cikin wanda amfrayo da kuma yaron ciki ya nuna har zuwa haihuwa.

Chapter 9   2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation

A tsakanin mako biyu da rabi, efiblast ya nuna massamman tsokoki guda uku, ko layin jam (germ), wanda ake kira ektodam, da indodem, da kuma mesodam.

Ektodam ne ke canza zuwa iri-iri fannin jiki kamar kwakwalwa, da laka, da jijiyoyi, fata, akaifu, da kuma suma.

Indodem kuma shine ke zama abin rai da kuma daijestiv trak, shi kuma ne ke cikinmulmman cin abubuwa rai kamar hanta da kuma pankras.

Mesodam shi ne zai zama zuciya, kodoji, kasusuwa, guringuntsi, tsokoki, da maikacin jini, da kuma da sauran fannin jiki.

Da makon uku daga makon uku ne kwakwalwa zai fara rabawa ga uku da farko watau kwakwalwa na gaba, da na tsakiya, da kuma na baya.

Gabancin resfiretivi da dijestiv shi kuma ba za su makara ba.

Kwaram da maikacin jini ya taho (numa) daga cikin jakar kwai, ne za a ga jijiyar jini a tsakanin amfrayo duka, kuma za a ga zuciya.

A lokacin daye ne, zuciyar mai sauri girma zai cire kansa zuwa gidam daban wanda zai fara girma.

Zuciyar din zai fara mici da mako uku da kwana daya bayan hadi.

Sistem sakulasan ne sistem na daya daga sauransu, shi kuma ne tarowa ogan, masu aiki guda.

Chapter 10   3 to 4 Weeks: The Folding of the Embryo

Daga mako uku zuwa hudu, ma'aikaci jiki zai fara fitowa kamar kwakwalwa da, laka, da zuciya amfrayo suke fito sosai da kuma jakar kwai.

Saurin girmancin ne ke neda amfrayo din. Hanyar din ne ke juya kadan daga jakar kwai zuwa layin dijestif sistem domi zaman kirji da ramin cikin gabancin mutum (yaro).

Embryonic Development: 4 to 6 Weeks

Chapter 11   4 Weeks: Amniotic Fluid

Daga mako hudu ne ruwa mahaifa din ya kewaya amfrayo a cikkaken jakar ruwan. Ruwan mai tsafta nan ne, ake kira ruwa mahaifa, wanda ke su amfrayo a boye daga ko wane cuta da wahala.

Chapter 12   The Heart in Action

Zuciyar ke mici kamar sau dari daya da sha uku a minti guda.

Ga yanzu ta yadda zuciya ke cauza launi da shigowa da fitowar jiki acikin ta a cikin shi da aikace - aikacen ta.

Zuciya zai mici kamar sau miliyan hamsinda hudu kafin haihuwa kuma sau biliyan uku da miliyan dari biyu ga rayuwan shekaran tamanin.

Chapter 13   Brain Growth

Gabancin raf kwakwalwa ne ake gani ta canzawa kwakwalwa na gaba, da na tsakiya, da kuma na baya.

Chapter 14   Limb Buds

Sai hannu da kafa ya fara nunawa, da kama na toho kafa da hannu su a mako hudu.

Yanzu sai a ga komai da ke ciki daga wajen amfrayo saboda sel guda kadai ne yanzu.

Da fata ke samu karfe ne, ke daina kallon ciki daga waje, watau za mu iya kallo fanni yaron ciki zuwa ga wata biyu.


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