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The Biology of Prenatal Development




IBINYABUZIMA BIJYANA NO GUTWITA

.Kinyarwanda


 
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Chapter 1   Introduction

Uburyo buhamye bw'ibanze by'agahinja kumuntu habanza utuburungu tugenda dukura tugera kuri trillion-100 ni igitangaza kidakuka cy'ibinyabuzima byose bimera.

Menya ko abashakashatsi bazi uko bigenda mu mubiri w'umubyeyi uko bihinduka mu gihe cyo gutwita- akenshi igihe kirekire mbere yo kubyara.

Amajyambere abanziriza ibyara birumvikana ntashiti ko ari igihe cyo kwitegura mugihe umubiri w'umuntu ugerwaho n'imihindagurike myinshi, n'imikorere ikeneye ubuhanga, kubera imibereho nyuma yo kubyara.

Chapter 2   Terminology

Inda, mu buryo busanzwe iramba hafi ibyumweru 38 nkuko byabazwe kuva igihe cyo gusama inda cyangwa igihe cyo gusama, kugeza igihe cyo kubyara.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 8 bya mbere nyuma yo gusama, imihindagurike y'umubiri nicyo cyitwa intangiriro, aribyo bimenyesha ko hari "bikura munda" Iki gihe kimenywa nkigire kibanza, kikaba kigaragaza ububumbe bw'ibigize ahanini umubiri.

Guhera byuzura ibyumweru 8 kugeza igihe inda ari imvutsi, "inzira iganisha kuba umuntu yitwa isoro" aricyo cyitwa "umwana utaravuka." Icyo gihe, cyitwa igihe cyo gusama umubiri urakura rwose n'ingingo zawo zigatangira gukura.

Ibihe byose by'intangiro kugeza ku igi muri iyi gahunda bijyana ni igihe cyo gusama.

The Embryonic Period (The First 8 Weeks)

Embryonic Development: The First 4 Weeks

Chapter 3   Fertilization

Ibinyabuzima biragaragara, "Ikiremwa muntu gitangira Im ibereho yawo magihe cyo gusama." ni mugihe umugore n'umugabo iyo bahuje intanga 23 za buri wese mugihe cyo kuryamana igehe intanga zihura.

Intanga zibyara z'umugore muri rusange zitwa "igi" Ariko uhamba rikwiriye Na'masohoro.

Nkuko intanga zibyara z'umugabo muri rusange zitwa "amasohoro" ariko ijambo rikoreshwa ni intanga.

Imbuto z'umugore iyo zisohotse nirwo urutonde rwitwa amagi, igi n'amasohoro bihuriye muri umwe mu miheha y'inyababyeyi, aribyo akenshi bishyira imiheha ishashe.

Imiheha y'inyababyeyi ijyana intanga z'umugore mu kiziba cy'inda cyangwa mu gitereko cyayo.

Akaburungu kamwe iyo kagitangira niko kiswe isoro, aribyo bisobanura "bibiri byafatanye hamwe."

Chapter 4   DNA, Cell Division, and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF)

Isoro z'uturondorondo 46 ihwanye ni intera imwe rukumbi ya mbere nshyashya yuzuye y'umuntu ku giti cye muburyo buziguye. Iryo teganya mirambi Ryi carya rigwatiriye kuburyo rizengurutse utubumbe twitwa DNA. Tuba dufite amabwiriza y'amajyambere y'umubiri wose.

Utuburungu twa DNA tuba tumeze nk'urwego rujegajega tugaragara nk'uruboho ruboshye kabiri. Intera z'urwego zibazifite Utburungu tubiri tubiri cyangwa dushingiye kucyo bise ishingiro, ibifite isukari, imboga, n'inyama.

Ibifite isukari bibiri byonyine biba mumaraso, n'ibikomoka kumboga no ku nyama. Buri mubiri w'umuntu ugizwe n'utuburungu tugera kuri miriyardi 3 tukagenda ari tubiri tubiri.

Akaburungu kamwe gusa ka DNA kaba gafite inkuru zitabarika Kuboryo izo nkuru iyo ziza Kwandikwa mu magambo, n'iyo haza gukoreshwa inyuguti imwe gusa ibanza ya buri jambo hakenerwa amapaji arenze miriyoni 1.5,y'ibyanditswe

Iyo gapimwe uko kangana akaburungu kamwe ka DNA k'umuntu gapima santimetero 100 cyangwa metero 1.

Iyo twakuraho ibyizingiye byose kuri DNA mu tuburungu trillion 100 tw'umuntu mukuru, twakwira ahantu hareshya n'ibirometero miriyaridi 63. Ubwo burebure buhwanye no kuva kw'isi kujya ku zuba no kugaruka inshuro 340.

Ni hafi amasaha 24 kugeza kuri 30 nyuma yo gutera intanga, isoro ryigabanyamo ubwa mbere. Muri urwo rutonde rw'urujya n'uruza, akaburungu kamwe kicamo kabiri, kabiri kichamo ishuro 4 nuko…

Nyuma y'amasaha 24 kugeza kuri 48 intanga zitewe, ubuhanga bushobora kwemeza ko umugore atwite ibyo bitwa "ikimenyesho cyo gutwita" mu maraso y'umubyeyi.

Chapter 5   Early Stages (Morula and Blastocyst) and Stem Cells

Nyuma y'iminsi 3 kugeza kuri 4 nyuma yo gutera intanga, utubumbe twigabanyijemo hagaragara akabumbe gasa n'uruziga ako kabumbe rero niko kitwa morula.

Hagati y'iminsi 4 n'5, haboneka akobo mutubumbe tume nk'umupira iyo sura igitangira niyo yitwa isoro.

Utuburungu imbere mu isoro twitwa akabumbe k'imbere kanini niko gatuma umutwe, umubiri, n'izindi ngingo bikura ni ngombwa mu mibereho y'umuntu.

Utuburungu imbere mu kabumbe kanini twitwa utubumbe fatizo kubera ko dushobora kamwe ukwako gashobora kuvamo utubumbe tugeze kuri 200 turimo umubiri w'umuntu.

Chapter 6   1 to 1½ Weeks: Implantation and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

Nyuma yo kugenda mu miheha y'inyababyeyi akabumbe kishyira ubwako mu rukuta rw'imbere rw'ikiziba cy'inda y'umubyeyi. Urwo rutonde, rwitwa gushimangira, rutangira iminsi 6 rukarangira hagati y'iminsi 10 na 12 intanga zatewe.

Bitewe n'imikurire y'utuburungu tw'ibanze hatangira ibimenyetso byitwa chorionic, gonadotropin, cyangwa hCG. Ayo niyo mazina y'ibiboneka iyo basuzumye utwite.

HCG nibyo biranga umubyeyi kutongera kujya mu mihango isanzwe ya buri kwezi bituma inda ikura.

Chapter 7   The Placenta and Umbilical Cord

Ishimangira ribaye, utubumbe turi iruhande rwa blastocyst duha ingobyi kwaguka, ariyo iba iri hagati y'ibiri munda n'umwana.

Ingobyi iha umwana umwuka ahumeka, n'ibimutunga, ibyubaka umubiri, n'imiti kugira ngo umubiri ukure; imukuriraho imyanda yose; irinda umwana amaraso ye kutivanga n'amaraso y'insobane n'ay'isoro.

Ingobyi itanga kandi ibimenyetso ikagira kandi ibipimo by'ubushyuhe n'ubukonje burutaho gato ubw'umubyeyi we.

Ingobyi ikorana n'imikurire y'ikiremwa binyuze mu mitsi y'umukondo.

Ubuzima bw'umubyeyi nibwo buha imbaraga ingobyi zirwanya indwara duhura nazo mu bitaro by'iki gihe.

Chapter 8   Nutrition and Protection

Mugihe cy'icyumweru 1, utuburungu tw'imbere mu kabumbe kanini dukora bugenzi bwatwo bubiri twiswe imirongo y'imbere no hasi n'igaragara hanze.

Hypoblast niyo ituma umuhondo w'igi ukura ariwo ufite uburyo umubyeyi agaburiramo aho umwana atangirira.

Utuburungu tuva kuri epiblast dukora icyitwa amnion (urukoko rukomeye) arimo isoro na kera hazaza igi rizakura kugeza kubyara.

Chapter 9   2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation

Mugihe hafi ibyumweru 2 1/2 epiblast iba yarabaye impu 3 zidasanzwe, cyangwa nk'imbuto ifite uruhumbu, yiswe uruhu rw'inyuma, uruhu rw'imbere, n'uruhu rw'imbere cyane.

Uruhu rw'inyuma nirwo rutuma byose bikura harimo n'ubwonko, urura rw'izinze, ubuzima, uruhu, inzara, n'umusatsi.

Uruhu rw'imbere nirwo rutanga uburyo bwo guhumeka n'uburyo bwo gustya ibiryo, nirwo rutuma ibihimba byinshi by'umubiri nk'umwijima ndetse n'urwagashya bikura.

Uruhu rw'imbere cyane rugize umutima, impyiko, amagufwa, ingingo inyama z'umubiri, utuburungu tw'amaraso n'ibindi bihimba by'umubiri.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 3 ubwonko buba bugabanyijemo ibice bitatu by'ibanze byitwa ubwonko bubanza, ubwonko bwo hagati, n'ubwonko bw'inyuma.

Iterambere ry'uburyo bwo guhumeka no gustya ibiryo riba naryo ryaratangiye.

Nkuko utuburungu twa mbere tw'amaraso tugaragara mu muhondo w'igi, imitsi y'amaraso ikora isoro n'imiheha y'umutima ikagarara.

Ni nkako kanya, umutima ukura vuba wishyira mu gitereko wonyine nkaho uri mu byumba bitandukanye ugatangira gukura.

Umutima utangira gutera hashize ibyumweru 3 n'umunsi 1 nyuma yo gutera intanga.

Habanza gukora uburyo umubiri ugaburirwa, cyangwa uburyo rusange buhuza ibigize umubiri, kugira ngo umubiri ubashe gukora.

Chapter 10   3 to 4 Weeks: The Folding of the Embryo

Hagati y'ibyumweru 3 na 4, umubiri utanga imigambi yawo nk'ubwonko, urura rw'izinze, n'umutima kimwe n'igi bigaragara kuburyo bworoshye hamwe n'umuhondo w'igi.

Gukura vuba bitera igi kugenda riyoyoka. Urwo rutonde rujyana n'umuhondo w'igi mu murongo umwe n'uburyo umubiri ustya ibiryo ukanakora igituza n'imyobo y'inda mu rwego rw'imikurire y'umuntu.

Embryonic Development: 4 to 6 Weeks

Chapter 11   4 Weeks: Amniotic Fluid

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 4 haboneka amavuta asukuye akikije isoro mu mavuta yuzuye igi. Ayo mavuta atagira umwanda, yitwa amavuta y'urukoko, arinda isoro kudakomereka.

Chapter 12   The Heart in Action

Umutima muzima utera inshuro 113 ku munota.

Reba uko umutima uhindura ibara uko amaraso yinjira agasoho mu byumba byawo uko uteye.

Umutima uzatera hafi inshuro miriyoni 54 mbere yo kuvuka n'inshuro zirenze miriyardi 3.2 mugihe kirenze uburambe bw'imyaka 80.

Chapter 13   Brain Growth

Gukura vuba k'ubwonko bigaragazwa n'umuntu uko ahinduka bitewe n'ubwonko bw'imbere, ubwonko bwo hagati, n'ubwonko bw'inyuma.

Chapter 14   Limb Buds

Igihima cyo hejuru n'icyo hasi bitangira gukura nkuko ibyo bihimba bigaragara mugihe cy'ibyumweru 4.

Muri icyo gihe uruhu ruba rubonerana kubera ko aba'rakabumbe kamwe kananutse.

Uko uruhu runanuka rero, ruzagenda ruta kwa kubonerana, aribyo bisobanura ko dushobora gusa kubona ibihimba by'imbere uko bigenda bikura mugihe cy'ukundi kwezi.


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