Skip Navigation

National Geographic Society This program is distributed in the U.S. and Canada by National Geographic and EHD. [learn more]

Multilingual Illustrated DVD [Tutorial]

The Biology of Prenatal Development




CHIDZIDZO CHEBIOLOGY PAKUKURA KWEMWANA MUDUMBU

.Shona


 
Download English PDF  Download Spanish PDF  Download French PDF  What is PDF?
 

Chapter 1   Introduction

Nzira inoshamisa chaizvo inokonzera kuti kazai kamwechete kapinduke kuita zviuru zvakawanda zvinosika mhunu ndizvo zvatingati zvinoshamisa kupfuura zvimwe zvese muhupenyu.

Vaongorori vaveneruzivo rwemasikirwo anoitwa nhengo dzemuviri wemunhu uye dzinogadzirwa munhu asati aberekwa - kazhinji nhumbu ichangobatwa.

Makuriro emwana ari mudumbu inguva inozikanwa seyekugadzirira panguva iyi kusikwa kwemunhu kunoshandisa nhengo dzakawanda, uye nehunyanzvi nemashandiro akasiyana-siyana kuitira kurarama pakuberekwa.

Chapter 2   Terminology

Muvanhu, nhumbu Inotora masvondo makumi matatu nemasere kana tichitanga kuverenga kubva musi wekusangana, kana kuti,kubva pakubata nhumbu kusvika pakuberekwa.

Mumasvondo masere ekutanga muchangosangana, magadzirirwo emwana anozivakanwa seemburiyo izvi zvinoreva kukurira mukati. Nguva iyi inonzi nguva yekugadzira embryo, uye ndipo panogadzirwa zvakaita senhengo dzemuviri dzese.

Panoguma masvondo masere kusvikira pakukwana kwenhumbu, mwana anenge achikura anodaidzwa kuti "fetus," zvinoreva munhu asati aberekwa. Nguva iyi inonzi, nguva yekufetus. Muviri unotangakukura uye nhengo dzemuviri dzinotanga kushanda

Zvese zvinoitika panguva Ino, Zvinotanga kubvira panguva yekusangana yemunhurume nemunhukadzi

The Embryonic Period (The First 8 Weeks)

Embryonic Development: The First 4 Weeks

Chapter 3   Fertilization

Kana tichitevera Biology, "munhu anotanga kusikwa panosangana murume nemukadzi" kana murume nemukadzi vasanganisa nhengo dzavo, uyu makumi maviri ane nhatu dzinonzi ma chromosomes pavanosangana zvinoita kuti vatange kusika mumhu.

Kumadzimai izvi zvinozikanwa "sezai" ramai asi zita racho chairo rinonzi "oocyte".

kune vanhurumewo zvinozivikanwa sehuronyo. zvinozivikanwa sehurume kana kuti "sperm" muchirungu asi zita racho chairo rinonzi "spermatozoon".

Kana nyoka yemunhukadzi yaburitsa zai kana"oocyte" zvinodaidzwa kuti ovulation, zai kana "oocyte" ne "spermatozoon" zvobatana mune tumatambo twakabata chibereko, twunozivakanwa nezita rekuti "Fallopian tubes".

Twutambo utwu Twunobatanidza ma"ovaries" nechibereko.

Chinobuda ipapo chimubatanidzwa Che embryo chinonzi "zygote", izvi zvinoreva kupinda pajoke rimwe kana kubatanidzwa.

Chapter 4   DNA, Cell Division, and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF)

Zygote rine makumi mana nematanhatu enhengo nhengo idzi ndidzo dzinovamba upenyu hwemunhu ega-ega uyendiyo inonzi "genetic blueprint" yakakwana. Masikirwo emunhu anogara mukati mehata yakamonwa ye ma"molecules" anonzi "DNA". Anochengetedza makuriro Anoita munhu kubva pakuberekwa kusvika muviri wese wakwana.

Ma "DNA molecules" akafanana nemanera akamonerera anodaidzwa kuti "double helix". Manera aya anenge aine Ma"molecules" maviri-maviri, kanakuti mabesi anonzi "guanine", "cytosine", "adenine", ne "thymine".

Ma"Guanine" anosangana chete ne "cytosine", ne "adenine" ine "thymine". Mukati memunhu ega-ega mune Ma"cells" anopfuura zviuru zvezviuru zvitatu zvakasungwa pauviri-viri.

Saka "DNA" ye "cell" rimwechete Inochengeta ruzivo rwekutoti dai painyorwa nemazwi, zvaireve kuti vara rekutanga pabesi rega-rega rinotoda mavara akapfuura miriyoni nechidimbu zvemapepa akanyorwa!

Kuzoti zvikaitwa mudungwe, inokwana mutsetse wakareba mafiti matatu nechidimbu kana kuti mita imwechete.

Tikamonorora Yese zvayo "DNA" inowanikwa mumunhu mukuru tinowana zana rezviuru zvema'cells' kana kuti rwendo rwunopfuura mamayera makumi matanhatu ane nhatu ezviuru. Pano tingati zvakaenzana nekubva pasi pano kuenda kuzuva nekudzoka Kunokwana mazana matatu ane mana.

Kana pachangopera zuva rimwechete muchangosana, zai kana "zygote" rinenge rapinduka kuita maviri, nenzira inodaidzirwa kuti 'mitosis' zai rimwe rinotsemuka kuita maviri ayo anoita mana zvichingoenda zvakadaro.

Mumashure mezuva rimwechete kana kuti maviri muchangopedza kusangana, nhumbu inenge yatobata uye inoongororwa ne "hormone" rinonzi "early pregnancy factor" rinowanikwa muropa ramai.

Chapter 5   Early Stages (Morula and Blastocyst) and Stem Cells

Mumashure memazuva Matatu kana mana mabvakusangana, kumeduka-meduka kwema'cells' emu'embryo' kunoshanduka kuita sedenderedzwa uye "embryo" inopiwa zita rekuti "morula".

Mumashure memazuva mana kana mashanu Muchidenderedzwa munoita buri kana zvadayi "embryo" inopiwa zita rekuti"blastocyst".

Zvino ma"cell" arimukati me "blastocyst" anopiwa zita rekuti "inner cell mass" uye ndiwo anokurisa musoro,muviri, nedzimwe nhengo dzemuviri dzinove ndidzo dzakakosha pamunhu.

Ma"cell" anowanikwa Mukati-kati me"cell mass" anopiwa zita rekuti"embryonic stem cells" nekuti anokwanisa kuvaka rimwe rema'cell" anopfuura zviuru zviviri anowanikwa mumuviri wemunhu.

Chapter 6   1 to 1½ Weeks: Implantation and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

Kana mukatevera Mukati mechibereko, ka "embryo" kekutanga kanozvidyara mukati memadziro echibereko. Izvi zvinodaidzwa kuti"implantation" inotanga pamazuva matanhatu, iyo inoguma mumashure memazuva gumi kana guminemaviri muchangosangana.

Ma"cell" anobva mu"embryo" anotangisa kuburitsa "hormone" rinonzi "human chorionic gonadotropin", kana "CG", zvinove ndizvo zvinowanikwa pakuongorora kubatwa kwenhumbu.

Iyi 'HCG' ndeyekugadzirira mai kuti vachirega kuenda kumwedzi senguva dzose kuitira kuti nhumbu ibate.

Chapter 7   The Placenta and Umbilical Cord

Zvinoitika kana ma"cells" arikunze kwe "blastocyst" anokonzera kukura kweruguvhute, urwu rwunoita basa rekudzivirira mwana nema"embryonic circulatory systems".

Ruguvhute rwunounza mweya we"oxygen", zvinokurisa, ma"hormones", nezvinorapa mwana achirimudumbu; kubvisa tsvina yese; nekudzivirira ropa ramai kuti risasangane nere "embryo" kana nere"fetus".

Ruguvhute zvakare ndirwo rwunogadzira ma"hormone" nekuchengetedza madziyiro ema"embryo" ne"fetus" kuti adziye kupfuura amai.

Ruguvhute ndirwo rwunofambisa zvese zvinodiwa pamhunu rwuchishandisa tsinga dzinowanikwa muguvhu.

Zvese zvinochengetedza upenyu zvinowanikwa muruguvhute zvinokunda zvinowanikwa nzvimbo dzekurapa muzvipatara zviripamusoro-soro.

Chapter 8   Nutrition and Protection

Mukupera kwesvondo, ma"cell" emukati-kati me"cell mass" anoita zviviri zvakafukidza zvinonzi "hypoblast" ne " epiblast".

Iyi "hypoblast" inokonzera kukura kwechakavhara zai, chinova chinokonzera kufamba kwezvinokudza mwana paanenge achiri pazera re"embryo".

Ma "cell" anowanikwapa "epiblast" anoita mambure anonzi "amnion", anova ndiwo anochengeta 'embryo' ichapinduka kuita "fetus" kusvikira mwana aberekwa.

Chapter 9   2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation

Pakupera kwemasvondo maviri anechidimbu, "epiblast" inenge yavepo uye ne ma"specialized tissues" matatu, kana kuti ma "germ layers", anonzi "ectoderm", "endoderm", ne" mesoderm".

"Ectoderm" inokonzera kukura kwenhengo dzemuviri dzinosanganisa uropi, musana, tsinga, ganda, nzara, nevhudzi.

"Endoderm" inogadzira mukati mehuro nezvekufema zvese uye nezvekumedza nekudya zvese, uye nekugadzira dzimwe nhengo dzese dzemuviri dzakaita sechitaka nerwatata.

"Mesoderm" inogadzira mwoyo, neitsvo, mapfupa, tsinga dzinobatanidza mapfupa, nyama yemuviri, tsinga dzeropa, nedzimwewo nhengo.

Mumasvondo matatu uropi hunoita nhengo nhatu dzakakosha dzinonzi "forebrain", "midbrain", ne "hindbrain".

Mukugadzirwa uku nhengo Dzekufema nedzekudyisa dzinenge dzichigadzirwawo.

Chekutanga nhengo dzeropa dzinotanga kuonekwa mukatimezai riye, tsinga dzeropawo dzinotanga mukati mese me "embryo", nekutanga kwenhengo dzemwoyo.

Pakare ipapo, mwoyo unotanga kukura wotanga kupetana uye nhengo dzemwoyo dzotanga kukura.

Mwoyo wototanga kurova masvondo matatu nezuvarimwechete muchangosangana.

Nhengo dzinofambisa ropa ndidzo dzinotanga kugadzirwa, pano tinoreva zvese zvekufambisa ropa, kuti muviri urarame.

Chapter 10   3 to 4 Weeks: The Folding of the Embryo

Pakati pemasvondo matatu nemana, muviri wese unotanga kuwonekwa kuti uropi, musana, nemwoyo unenge urimu "embryo" zvinonyatsowonekwa zvakabatana neganda rezai.

Makurumidziro ekukura anoita kuti "embryo" ipetanepetane. Kupetana uku kunosanganisa ganda rakakomberedza zai neganda remukati menhengo dzekumedza kudya zvovaka chipfuva nenhengo dzemudumbu memwana achirimudumbu

Embryonic Development: 4 to 6 Weeks

Chapter 11   4 Weeks: Amniotic Fluid

Mumashure memasvondo mana mvura inonzi "amnion" inokomberedza "embryo" igozadza munogara zai. Iyi mvura haina hutachiona uye inonzi "amniotic fluid", uye ndiyo inodzivirira "embryo" kuti isakuvadzwe.

Chapter 12   The Heart in Action

Mwoyo unorova zvinoverengeka Kuita zana nemakumi matatu piminiti rega.

Apa onaiwo Kuchinja ruvara kunoita mwoyo kana ropa richipinda nekubuda munhengo dzemwoyo paunorova.

Mwoyo unorova kanokwana makumi mashanu emamiriyoni mwana asati aberekwa uye zviuru zvitatu zvemamiriyoni Kana tichiyera upenyu hwemakore makumi masere

Chapter 13   Brain Growth

Makurumidziro ekukura kweuropi kunoonekwa nemapindukiro eruvara rwe "forebrain", "midbrain", ne "hindbrain".

Chapter 14   Limb Buds

Maoko nemakumbo anoonekwa kutanga kukura nekubuda kwezvinenge mazvimbiswa mumasvondo mana.

Apa ganda rinenge richinjenjemera nekuti rinenge rakakora se'cell' rimwechete.

Kana ganda richikora, kunjenjemera uku kunopera, zvinoreva kuti tinogona kuona nhengo dzemukati dzichikura kwemwedzi mumwechete unotevera.


Add a Comment

Your Name: Log In 3rd-party login: Facebook     Google     Yahoo

Comment: