Skip Navigation

National Geographic Society This program is distributed in the U.S. and Canada by National Geographic and EHD. [learn more]

Multilingual Illustrated DVD [Tutorial]

The Biology of Prenatal Development




UKUFUNDA NGOKWENZEKAYO NGAPHAMBI KOKUZALA

.isiZulu [Zulu]


 
Download English PDF  Download Spanish PDF  Download French PDF  What is PDF?
 

The Fetal Period (8 Weeks through Birth)

Chapter 37   9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches

Isikhathi somntwana ongakazalwa siqhubeka aze azalwe.

Kumaviki angu 9, kuqala ukuncela isithupha futhi ingane isingayigwinya i-amniotic fluid.

Ingane futhi isingayibamba into, iyise ikhanda phambili nasemuva, ivule ivale imihlathi, inyakazise ulimi, izamule, izelule.

Izamukeli zemizwa ebusweni, ezintendeni zezandla, nasezintendeni zezinyawo ziyezwa ukuthintwa.

"Ukuphendula ukuthintwa kancane entendeni yonyawo," ingane izogobisa inqulu nedolo mhlawumbe nezinzwane.

Amajwabu amehlo manje asevaleke ngci.

Emphinjeni, ukuvela kwemisipha yezwi kusho ukuqala kokukhula kwezwi.

Ezinganeni zesifazane, isibeletho siyabonakala futhi amaseli enzalo angavuthiwe, okuthiwa ama-oogonia, ayaphindaphindeka endlaleni yamaqanda.

Izitho zobulili zangaphandle ziyacaca ukuthi eyesilisa noma yesimame.

Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints

Ukukhula ngesivinini phakathi kwamaviki 9 no 10 kwandisa isisindo somzimba ngo 75%.

Kumaviki awu 10, ukukhuthazwa kwejwabu leso elingenhla kudala ukugingqikela ezansi kweso.

Ingane iyazamula futhi ivula ivale umlomo kaningi.

Iningi lezingane zincela isithupha sesokudla.

Izingxenye zethumbu enkabeni zibuyela esiswini.

Ukuqina sekuyenzeka emathanjeni amaningi.

Izinzipho zeminwe nezezinzwane ziqala ukukhula.

Iminyatheliso yeminwe ehlukile ivela kumaviki awu 10 emva kokukhulelwa. Lokhu kungasetshenziselwa ukukhonjwa impilo yonke.

Chapter 39   11 Weeks: Absorbs Glucose and Water

Kumaviki awu 11 ikhala nezindebe sekuphelele. Njenganoma iyiphi enye ingxenye yomzimba, ukubukeka kwako kuzoshintsha esigabeni ngasinye somjikelezo wempilo yomuntu.

Ithumbu liqala ukumunca iglukhozi namanzi okugwinywe yingane.

Yize noma ubulili buqokeka ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, izitho zobulili zangaphandle manje seziyahlukaniseka njengesilisa noma isimame.

Chapter 40   3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening

Phakathi kuka 11 no 12 amaviki, isisindo sengane sanda cishe ngo 60%.

Amaviki awu 12 abalula ukuphela kwe-trimester yokuqala, noma ingxenye yokuthathu, yokukhulelwa.

Izindlala okuzwa ukudla manje agcwele emlonyeni.
Ekuzalweni, amahlumela okudla azosala kuphela olimini nasolwangeni.

Ukukaka kuqala kumaviki awu 12 kuqhubeke cishe amaviki awu 6.

Okokuqala okuphuma ethunjini lengane kuthiwa yi-meconium. Yingxube yama-enzymes okugaya ukudla, amaphrotheni, namaseli afile okukhishwa wumgudu wokugaya ukudla.

Kumaviki awu 12, ubude bezingalo nemilenze kwangenhla sekufike ekugcineni kokuqhathaniswa nomzimba. Izingalo nemilenze kwangezansi kuyaphuza ukufika esilinganisweni sako.

Ngaphandle komhlane nengaphezulu lekhanda, umzimba wonke wengane manje uyakuzwa ukuthintwa kancane.

Ukwehluka kokukhula okuncike ebulilini kuvela ngokokuqala. Isibonelo, izingane zamantombazane ziveza ukunyakaza kwemihlathi kaningi ngaphezu kwezabafana.

Ngokwehlukile ekubalekeni okubonwe ngaphambidlana, ukuthintwa eduze komlomo manje sekudala ukubheka ngasekuthintweni nokuvula umlomo. Lezi zenzo kuthiwa yi "rooting reflex" futhi siyaqhubeka nangemuva kokuzalwa, kusize ingane ezelwe ithole ibele likanina uma incela.

Ubuso buyaqhubeka nokuvuthwa uma ukungena kwamafutha kuqhubeka nokugcwalisa izihlathi futhi kuqala ukumila kwamazinyo.

Kumaviki awu 15, kufika ama-stem cells akha igazi aphindaphindeke emongweni wamathambo. Iningi lokwakheka kwamaseli egazi kuzokwenzeka lapha.

Yize noma ukunyakaza kuqala Kumbungu onamaviki awu 6, owesimame okhulelwe uqala ukuzwa ukunyakaza kombungu phakathi kwamaviki 14 no 18. Ngokwesiko, le sehlakalo kuthiwa wukukhahlela.

Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms

Kumaviki awu 16, izinqubo ezibandakanya ukushuthekwa kwenaliti esiswini sengane ziletha ukuxineka kwamahomoni okudedela i-noradrenaline, noma i-norepinephrine, egazini. Izingane ezizelwe nabadala bakhombisa isenzo esifanayo kwizenzo ezisakuhlasela.

Emgudwini wokuphefumula, imithambo emaphashini isicishe iphelele.

Into yokuvikela emhlophe, okuthiwa yi-vernix caseosa, manje isiyemboze ingane. I-vernix ivikela isikhumba kwimiphumela ehluphayo ye-amniotic fluid.

Kusukela kumaviki awu 19 ukunyakaza kwengane,ukuphefumula, nokushaya kwenhliziyo kuqala ukulandela imijikelezo yosuku okuthiwa ama-circadian rhythms.

Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability

Kumaviki awu 20 i-cochlea, okuyisitho sokulalela, isikhule ngokugcwele ngaphakathi kwesikhule ngokwenele indlebe yangaphakathi. Kusukela manje, ingane isizophendula uhla olukhulayo lwemisindo.

Izinwele ziqala ukumila esikhunjeni sezinwele.

Zonke izingqimba nezakhiwo kwesikhumba sekukhona, kubandakanya izimbobo zoboya nezindlala.

Kumaviki awu 21 kuyaku 22 emva kokukhulelwa, amaphaphu athola ikhono elithile lokuphefumula. Lokhu kuthathwa njengokuzimela ngoba ukuphila ngaphandle kwesibeletho sekunokwenzeka kwezinye izingane. Uchunge olude lobuchwepheshe bodokotela lwenza kukwazeke ukusimamisa izimpilo zezingane ezizalwe ngaphambi kwesikhathi.

Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste

Kumaviki awu 24 amajwabu amehlo ayaphinda avuleke futhi ingane ikhombisa ukucwayiza okunokwethuka. Lokhu kuphendula imisindo, yokuphazima kweso kuvame ukufika kuqala enganeni yesilisa.

Abacwaningi abaningana babika ukuthi ukuthola umsindo omkhulu kungayiphatha kabi impilo yengane. Imiphumela yokuphazima kweso ibandakanya ukushaya kwenhliziyo okusheshayo kwesikhathi eside, ingane igwinya ngokweqile, kuvele kushintshe nokuziphatha. Imiphumela yesikhathi eside ingabandakanya ubuthulu.

Izinga lokuphefumula lengane lingakhuphuka lifike kwimijikelezo yokudonsa nokukhipha umoya ewu 44 ngomzuzu.

Engxenyeni yokuthathu yesithathu yokukhulelwa, ukukhula ngamandla kobuchopho kudla ngaphezu kuka 50% wamandla asetshenziswa yingane. Isisindo sobuchopho sanda ngo 400 kuyaku 500%.

Kumaviki awu 26 amehlo akhiqiza izinyembezi.

Amehlo aphendula ukukhanya emva kuka 27 amaviki. Lokhu kuphendula kulawula umthamo wokukhanya okufika kwi-retina impilo yonke.

Zonke izingxenye ezidingekayo zekhono lokunuka elisebenzayo sezikhona. Ukucwaningwa kwezingane zangaphambi kwesikhathi ziveza ikhono lokuzwa amaphunga kumaviki awu 26 emva kokukhulelwa.

Ukufaka into ewuswidi kwi-amniotic fluid kwandisa izinga lokugwinya lengane. Ngokwehlukile, ukwehla kokugwinya kwengane kulandela ukufakwa kwento ebabayo. Izimo zobuso eziguqukile zivame ukulandela.

Ngochunge change lweminyakazo yemilenze enjengezinyathelo efana nokuhamba, ingane ishaya ungqimphothwe.

Ingane ibukeka kunciphile ukushwabana uma amafutha amanye engezeka ngaphansi kwesikhumba. Amafutha asemqoka ekugcineni ukushisa komzimba nasekugcineni amandla emva kokuzalwa.

Chapter 44   7 to 8 Months (28 to 32 Weeks): Sound Discrimination, Behavioral States

Kumaviki awu 28 ingane ingahlukanisa phakathi kwemisindo ephakeme nephansi.

Kumaviki awu 30, iminyakazo yokuphefumula iya ngokwanda futhi yenzeka ku 30 kuyaku 40% wesikhathi enganeni evamile.

Ngezinyanga ezine zokugcina zokukhulelwa, ingane ikhombisa izikhathi zeminyakazo evumelanayo ehlukaniswe yizikhathi zokuphumula. Le zimo zokuziphatha zikhombisa ubuxhakaxhaka obuya ngokwanda bohlelo lwemizwa olusemqoka.

Chapter 45   8 to 9 Months (32 to 36 Weeks): Alveoli Formation, Firm Grasp, Taste Preferences

Kumaviki cishe awu 32, ama-alveoli eqiniso, noma amaseli angama"phakethe" omoya, aqala ukukhula emaphashini. Azoqhubeka nokwakheka kuze kube 8 iminyaka ingane yazalwa.

Kumaviki awu 35 ingane ibamba ngesandla kuqine.

Ukuvezeka kwengane ezintweni ezahlukene sengathi kunomthelela ekukhetheni okudliwayo emva kokuzalwa. Isibonelo, izingane omama bazo abebedla i-anise, into enika i-licorice ukunambitheka kwayo, zithanda i-anise emva kokuzalwa. Izingane ezingatholananga ne-anise zazingayithandi.

Chapter 46   9 Months to Birth (36 Weeks through Birth)

Ingane iqalisa ukusikwa ngokudedela ihomoni eningi okuthiwa yi-estrogen bese kuqala ushintsho olusuka esiswini luya ekuzalweni.

Ukusikwa kuba wukufingqeka okunamandla kwesibeletho, okuholela ekuzalweni kwengane.

Kusukela ekukhulelweni kuye ekuzalweni nangale, ukukhula komuntu kuyaguquguquka, kuyaqhubeka, futhi kunzulu. Okusha okutholwayo ngalo luhlelo olubabazekayo kuya ngokuveza umthelela osemqoka wokukhula kwengane esiswini empilweni yempilo yonke.

Ngokuqhubeka kokuqonda kwethu ukukhula komuntu kwasekuqaleni, kuyoqhubeka nekhono lethu lokwenza ngcono impilo - ngaphambi nangemuva kokuzalwa.


Add a Comment

Your Name: Log In 3rd-party login: Facebook     Google     Yahoo

Comment: