Skip Navigation

National Geographic Society This program is distributed in the U.S. and Canada by National Geographic and EHD. [learn more]

Multilingual Illustrated DVD [Tutorial]

The Biology of Prenatal Development




IBINYABUZIMA BIJYANA NO GUTWITA

.Kinyarwanda


 
Download English PDF  Download Spanish PDF  Download French PDF  What is PDF?
 

The Fetal Period (8 Weeks through Birth)

Chapter 37   9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches

Igihe cyo gukura kirakomeza kugeza igihe cyo kuvuka.

Mubyumweru 9, nibwo konka bitangira n'ikiziba cy'inda gishobora kumira ya mavuta.

Ikiziba cy'inda gishobora gupfumbata ikintu, kikajyana umutwe imbere n'inyuma, umusaya ugafunguka no gufunga, ururimi rugakora byose.

Mu maso hagaragara uburyo bwo kumva, ibiganza, n'udutsintsino twerekana ibimenyetso b'ubuzima.

"Mu kwerekana ko wakoze ku gatsinsino," agahinja gakinisha amanyinginya gashobora guhina ivi n'amano.

Ibitsiki by'amaso ubu birabumbye pe.

Mu muhogo, hagaragara ibituma umuntu agira ijwi kikaba ari ikimenyetso cy'uko ijwi ririmo rikura.

Mu isoro ry'igitsina gore, ikiziba cy'inda kigaragaza utuburungu tw'imbuto zidafashe zibyara ziranga igitsina gore, zikuba kenshi mu mufuka w'urubyaro.

Ibihimba bigaragara by'urubyaro bitangira kwigaragaza ubwabyo niba ari igitsina gabo cyangwa igitsina gore.

Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints

Ubuturumbuke mumikurire hagati y'ibyumweru 9 na 10 byongera ibiro by'umubiri inshuro zirenze 75%.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 10 ibitsike byo hejuru y'ijisho bipfundikira ijisho bikanarikoresha.

Agahinja karayura, akenshi karafungura kakanafunga umunwa.

Uduhinja twinshi turigata igikumwe cy'iburyo.

ibice by'amara mu mukondo asubira mugitereko cy'inda.

Amagufwa atangira gukomera

Inzara z'intoki n'iz'amaguru zitangira gukura.

Ibimenyetso by'intoki bigaragara ibyumweru 10 nyuma yo gusama. Izo manzi zishobora kugaragara mu buzima bwose.

Chapter 39   11 Weeks: Absorbs Glucose and Water

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 11 izuru n'umunwa biba bigaragara. Nkuko kuri buri gihimba kindi cy'umubiri, kuri buri intera isura y'umubiri izahinduka mubuzima bw'umuntu.

Amara atangira gukurura ibifite isukari n'amazi byamizwe n'agahinja.

Igitsina kimenyekana igihe cyo gusama, ingingo zigaragara z'ububyeyi noneho zishobora gutandukanywa igitsina gabo cg igitsina gore.

Chapter 40   3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening

Hagati y'ibyumweru 11 na 12, igi ryongera ibiro hafi 60%.

Ibyumweru 12 haba harangiye kimwe cy'agatatu kibanza, cyangwa amezi 3 yo gutwita.

Mu munwa haza icyumva uburyohe n'ububihe.
Igihe cyo kuvuka ibyo kumva uburyohe n'ububihe biguhamho gusa ku rurimi no kurusenge rw'umunwa.

Amara atangira kujegajega nyuma y'ibyumweru 12 gusa agakomeza gutyo kumara igihe cy'ibyumweru 6

Umubiri utangira kuva mu igi n'urura rugari rw'uruhinja aricyo cyitwa umwanda. Uba igizwe n'ibyo agahinja kariye kakiri munda, za proteine n'utuburungu tw'amaraso tuba twarapfuye bikorwa n'inda.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 12, igihimba cyo hejuru kiba hafi cyarageze uko kizareshya. Ibihimba byo hasi bifata igihe kugira ngo bigere uko bizareshya.

Uretse gusa umugongo no kugahanga, umubiri wose w'agahinja ushobora kumva iyo kakozweho.

Itandukaniro ry'imikurire y'igitsina n'ibijyana nacyo nibwo bigaragara ubwa mbere. Urugero, uduhinja gore tujegajeza imisaya kenshi kurusha uduhinja gabo.

Ibiramambu, nkuko twabibonye kare, ibituma umunwa uryoherwa byerekana impamvu zishyira gufungura umunwa. Ibyo byitwa "gushaka inzira" kandi birakomeza na nyuma yo kuvuka, bifasha uruhinja rwavutse kumenya imoko za nyina igihe cyo konka.

Isura ikomeza gukura uko urukoko rw'amavuta rugenda rushongera mu ruhu n'amenyo atangira kumera.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 15, nibwo utuburungu tubyara amaraso tuza, tukikuba mu igufwa ritarakomera. Utuburungu dukora amaraso tuzaboneka aha.

Nubwo igi ry'umwana ritangira gutera nk'igicuro mubyumweru 6, ariko umugore utwite atangira kumva inda itera ubwambere hagati y'ibyumweru 14 na 18. Ubusanzwe icyo gihe cyitwa icyo hagati mu gutwita.

Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 16, impamvu zateye urushinge kwinjira munda y'igi ruhungabanya imbuto igisubizo kikagorana impamvu zituma utwite zikajya ahagaragara, cyangwa se impamvu zituma amaraso ajya ukwayo. Impinja zavutse n'abantu bakuru berekana ibimenyetso bimwe muburyo bitagenda neza.

Mubuhumekero, umuhogo uba noneho ugaragara.

Umweru urinda umuhogo, witwa urutonde rw'amenyo, ubu utwikiriye agahinja. urwo rutonde rurinze uruhu ngo rutagira ikiruhungabanya biturutse ku mavuta.

Guhera kubyumweru 19 agahinja karakina, kagahumeka, n'umutima utangira gutera ukurikije ibiriho ku munsi aribyo bitwa akazi k'umutima.

Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 20 ingoma y'amatwi, ituma umuntu yumva, iba imeze nk'iy'umuntu mukuru kuburyo nta kindi ikeneye imbere mu gutwi. Guhera ubu noneho, agahinja gashobora kwerekana ko kumva urusobe rw'amajwi.

Umusatsi utangira gukura ku ruhu rw'umutwe.

Ibigize uruhu, n'izindi ngingo z'umubiri biba byuzuye, harimo igikuriro cy'umusatsi n'uduturugunyu.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 21 kugeza kuri 22 nyuma yo gusama, ibihaha bigira ubushobozi bwo guhumeka umwuka. Ibyo byerekana ko umwana aba yakuze kubera ko aba nyuma y'ingobyi ibyo ariko bishoboka kuduhinja tumwe na tumwe. Hakoreshejwe ubuhanga buhanitse mubyubuvuzi birashoboka kuramira ubuzima bw'abana bavuka badashitse.

Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 24 ibitsiki by'amaso bifunguka bushya agahinja gakubita ingohe. Ibyo bituma kagira urusaku nkuko bigenda mu igi rizavo igitsina gore.

Abashakashatsi benshi bavuga ko urusaku rwinshi rushobora kugira ingaruka mbi kubuzima bw'agahinja. Ingaruka z'ako kanya harimo kwiyongera umutima guteraguza, agahinja kamira bikabije, no guhindagurika mu myifatire. Ingaruka z'igihe kirekire agahinja gapfa amatwi.

Inshuro zo guhumeka zishobora kwiyongera cyane kugeza kunshuro 44 muguhumeka no gusohora umuka ku munota.

Mugihe cy'amezi 3 ya mbere yo gutwita gukura vuba k'ubwonko bitwara 50% by'ingufu zikoreshwa n'agahinja. Ibiro by'ubwonko byiyongera hagati ya 400 na 500%.

Mubyumweru 26 amaso azana amarira.

Imboni zerekana kubona urumuri nyuma y'ibyumweru 27. Ubwo buryo bugenzura uburemere bw'urumuri iyo rugeze aho ijisho ryakirira urumuri mubuzima bwose.

Ibifasha bindi byose bikenewe biba byuzuye kugira ngo uburyo bwo kwihumuriza bukore. Ubuhanga kubyerekeranye n'abana bavuka badashitse bwerekana ubushobozi bwo kumva impumuro ibyo biba mugihe cy'ibyumweru 26 nyuma yo gusama.

Bishyira ibinyasukari mumufuka ugira amavuta byongera uburyo agahinja kamira. Igitangaje, ibigabanya agahinja kumira n'iyo gahuye n'ibintu birura. Akenshi kagaragaza gukambya isura.

Biciye muruhuri rw'intera nko kunyagambura amaguru bimeze nko kugenda n'amaguru, akana kibirindura gatebegatoki.

Agahinja gasa n'akihinnye nk'amavuta y'inyongera ari munsi y'uruhu. Amavuta afite uruhare rukomeye mukubumbatira ubushyuhe bw'umubiri no kuzigama ingufu nyuma yo kuvuka.

Chapter 44   7 to 8 Months (28 to 32 Weeks): Sound Discrimination, Behavioral States

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 28 agahinja gashobora gutandukanya urusaku rwinshi n'urusaku rukeya.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 30, uburyo bwo guhumeka buba busanzwe gahumeka mu kigererenyo gihwanye na 30 kugeza kuri 40%.

Mugihe cy'amezi 4 yanyuma yo gutwita, agahinja kerekana gukora ibintu bifite gahunda bijyana n'ibihe byo kuruhuka. Iyo myifatire yerekana kwiyongera muburyo budasobanutse imikorere y'iteraniro ry'ibituma umuntu yumva.

Chapter 45   8 to 9 Months (32 to 36 Weeks): Alveoli Formation, Firm Grasp, Taste Preferences

Hafi ibyumweru 32 amashami nyayo y'ubuhumekero, cyangwa "udufuka" tw'utuburungu tw'umuka, dutangira gukura mu bihaha. Tuzakomeza gukura kugeza igihe cy'imyaka 8 nyuma y'ivuka.

Mugihe cy'ibyumweru 35 agahinja kaba gafunze igipfunsi.

Agahinja kerekana ibintu binyuranye bituma umwana atakaza amahitamo yo kubonjya nyuma yo kuvuka. Urugero, ababyeyi barya ibyatsi bifite kuba byasindisha, bituma umwana akunda ibijya gusa nabyo nyuma y'ivuka. Impinja zitagira aho zahuriye n'ibisindisha ntizibikunda.

Chapter 46   9 Months to Birth (36 Weeks through Birth)

Uruhinja rutangira akazi ko gukora uruhuri rw'ibiganisha inzira y'agateganyo hagati y'igi n'uruhinja rwavutse.

Ako kazi kagaragazwa n'ubwivumbagatanye mu kiziba cy'inda, bituma umwana avuka.

Guhera igihe cyo gusama kugeza igihe cyo kubyara na nyuma yaho, umubiri w'umuntu wubaka imbaraga muburyo butaziguye bukomeza. Ubuvumbuzi bushyashya muri urwo rutonde burerekana ingaruka ku mwana mubuzima bwe bwose.

Nkuko twashoboye kumva mubyerekeranye n'amajyambere y'umubiri w'umuntu, ni ingenzi kurinda ubuzima bw'umwana mbere na nyuma yo kuvuka.


Add a Comment

Your Name: Log In 3rd-party login: Facebook     Google     Yahoo

Comment: