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The Biology of Prenatal Development




IBINYABUZIMA BIJANA NO GUTWITA

.Kirundi [Kirundi (Rundi)]


 
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The Fetal Period (8 Weeks through Birth)

Chapter 37   9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches

Igihe co gukura kirakomeza kugeza igihe co kuvuka.

Mu m' amayinga 9, nibwo konka bitangura n'ikiziba c'inda gishobora kumira ya mavuta.

Ikiziba c'inda gishobora gupfumbata ikintu, kikajana umutwe imbere n'inyuma, umusaya ugafunguka no gufunga, ururimi rugakora vyose.

Mu maso hagaragara uburyo bwo kumva, ibiganza, n'udutsintsino twerekana ibimenyetso vy'ubuzima.

"Mu kwerekana ko wakoze ku gatsinsino," agahinja gakinisha amanyiginya gashobora guhina ivi n'amano.

Ibitsike vy'amaso ubu birabumvye pe.

Mu muhogo, hagaragara ibituma umuntu agira ijwi kikaba ari ikimenyetso c'uko ijwi ririmo rikura.

Mu isoro ry'igitsina gore, ikiziba c'inda kigaragaza utuburungu tw'imbuto zidafashe zivyara ziranga igitsina gore, zikuba kenshi mu mufuka w'uruvyaro.

Ibihimba bigaragara vy'uruvyaro bitangura kwigaragaza ubwavyo niba ari igitsina gabo cangwa igitsina gore.

Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints

Ubuturumbuke mumikurire hagati y'amayinga 9 na 10 vyongera ibiro y'umubiri inshuro zirenze 75%.

Mugihe c' amayinga 10 ibitsike vyo hejuru y'ijisho bipfundikira ijisho bikanarikoresha.

Akayoya karayura, akenshi karafungura kakanafunga umunwa.

Utuyoya twinshi turigata igikumwe c'iburyo.

amwe mu mara yo mu mukondo asubira mugitereko c'inda.

Amagufwa atangura gukomera

Inzara z'intoki n'iz'amaguru zitangura gukura.

Ibimenyetso vy'intoki bigaragara amayinga 10 nyuma yo gusama. Izo manzi zishobora kugaragara mu buzima bwose.

Chapter 39   11 Weeks: Absorbs Glucose and Water

Mugihe c'amayinga 11 izuru n'umunwa biba bigaragara. Nkuko kuri buri gihimba kindi c'umubiri, kuri buri intera isura y'umubiri izohinduka mu buzima bw'umuntu.

Amara atangura gukurura ibifite isukari n'amazi vyamizwe n'uruyoya.

Igitsina kimenyekana igihe co gusama, ingingo zigaragara z'ubuvyeyi noneho zishobora gutandukanywa igitsina gabo cangwa igitsina gore.

Chapter 40   3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening

Hagati y' amayinga 11 na 12, igi ryongera ibiro hafi 60%.

Amayinga 12 haba harangiye kimwe c'agatatu kibanza, cangwa amezi 3 yo gutwita.

Mu munwa haza icumva uburyohe n'ububihe.
Igihe co kuvuka iyo kumva uburyohe n'ububihe bigumaho gusa ku rurimi no kurusenge rw'umunwa.

Amara atangura kujegajega nyuma y' amayinga 12 gusa agakomeza gutyo igihe c' amayinga 6.

Umubiri utangura kuva mu igi n'urura rugari rw'uruyoya arico citwa umwanda. Uba igizwe n'ivyo uruyoya rwariye rukiri munda, za proteine n'utuburungu tw'amaraso tuba twarapfuye bikorwa n'inda.

Mugihe c' amayinga 12, igihimba co hejuru kiba hafi carageze uko kizoreha. Ibihimba vyo hasi bifata igihe kugira ngo bigere uko bizoreha.

Uretse gusa umugongo no kugahanga, umubiri wose w'uruyoya ushobora kumva iyo ukozweko.

Itandukaniro ry'imikurire y'igitsina n'ibijana naco nibwo bigaragara ubwa mbere. Urugero, utuyoya gore tujegajeza imisaya kenshi kurusha utuyoya gabo.

Kubera nkuko twabibonye kare, ibituma umunwa uryoherwa vyerekana impamvu zishira gufungura umunwa. Ivyo vyitwa "ugushaka inzira" kandi birakomeza na nyuma yo kuvuka, bifasha uruyoya rwavutse kumenya imoko za nyina igihe co konka.

Isura ikomeza gukura uko urukoko rw'amavuta rugenda rushongera mu ruhu n'amenyo atangura kumera.

Mugihe c' amayinga 15, nibwo utuburungu tuvyara amaraso tuza, tukizingira mu igufwa ritarakomera. Utuburungu dukora amaraso tuzoboneka aha.

Nubwo igi ry'umwana ritangura gutera nk'igicuro mu m'amayinga 6, ariko umugore utwite atangura kumva inda itera ubwambere hagati y' amayinga 14 na 18. Ubusanzwe ico gihe citwa ico hagati mu gutwita.

Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms

Mugihe c' amayinga 16, impamvu zateye urushinge kwinjira munda y'igi ruhungabanya imbuto igisubizo kikagorana impamvu zituma utwite zikaja ahagaragara, cangwa impamvu zituma amaraso aja ukwayo. Utuyoya twavutse n'abantu bakuru berekana ibimenyetso bimwe mu buryo bitagenda neza.

Mubuhumekero, umuhogo uba noneho ugaragara.

Umweru urinda umuhogo, witwa urutonde rw'amenyo, ubu utwikiriye uruyoya. urwo rutonde rurinze uruhu ngo rutagira ikiruhungabanya biturutse ku mavuta.

Guhera ku mayinga 19 akayoya karakina, kagahumeka, n'umutima utangura gutera ukurikije ibiriho ku munsi arivyo vyitwa akazi k'umutima.

Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability

Mugihe c' amayinga 20 ingoma y'amatwi, ituma umuntu yumva, iba imeze nk'iy'umuntu mukuru ku buryo nta kindi ikeneye imbere mu gutwi. Guhera ubu noneho, akayoya gashobora kwerekana ko kumva urusobe rw'amajwi.

Umusatsi utangira gukura ku ruhu rw'umutwe.

Ibigize uruhu, n'izindi ngingo z'umubiri biba vyuzuye, harimo igikuriro c'umusatsi n'uduturugunyu.

Mugihe c' amayinga 21 kugeza kuri 22 nyuma yo gusama, ibihaha bigira ubushobozi bwo guhumeka umwuka. Ibyo vyerekana ko umwana aba yakuze kubera ko aba nyuma y'ingovyi ivyo ariko bishoboka ku tuyoya tumwe na tumwe. Hakoreshejwe ubuhanga buhanitse Mu vy'ubuvuzi birashoboka kuramira ubuzima bw'abana bavuka badashitse.

Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste

Mugihe c' amayinga 24 ibitsike vy'amaso bifunguka bushasha akayoya gakubita ingohe. Ivyo bituma kagira urusaku nkuko bigenda mu igi rizavamo igitsina gore.

Abashakashatsi benshi bavuga ko urusaku rwinshi rushobora kugira ingaruka mbi kubuzima bw'uruyoya. Ingaruka z'ako kanya harimo kwiyongera umutima guteraguza, akayoya kamira bikabije, no guhindagurika mu myifatire. Ingaruka z'igihe kirekire akayoya gapfa amatwi.

Inshuro zo guhumeka zishobora kwiyongera cyane kugeza kunshuro 44 mu guhumeka no gusohora umwuka ku munota.

Mugihe c'amezi 3 ya mbere yo gutwita gukura vuba k'ubwonko bitwara 50% vy'ingufu zikoreshwa n'akayoya. Ibiro vy'ubwonko vyiyongera hagati ya 400 na 500%.

Mu m'amayinga 26 amaso azana amarira.

Imboni zerekana kubona urumuri nyuma y' amayinga 27. Ubwo buryo bugenzura uburemere bw'urumuri iyo rugeze aho ijisho ryakirira urumuri mubuzima bwose.

Ibifasha bindi vyose bikenewe biba vyuzuye kugira ngo uburyo bwo kwihumuriza bukore. Ubuhanga kuvyerekeranye n'abana bavuka badashitse bwerekana ubushobozi bwo kumva impumuro ivyo biba mugihe c'amayinga 26 nyuma yo gusama.

Bishira ibinyasukari mumufuka ugira amavuta vyongera uburyo akayoya kamira. Igitangaje, ibigabanya akayoya kumira n'iyo gahuye n'ibintu birura. Akenshi kagaragaza gukambya isura.

Biciye muruhuri rw'intera nko kunyagambura amaguru bimeze nko kugenda n'amaguru, akana karibirindura.

Akayoya gasa n'akihinye nk'amavuta y'inyongera ari munsi y'uruhu. Amavuta afite uruhare rukomeye Mu kubumbatira ubushuhe bw'umubiri no kuzigama ingufu nyuma yo kuvuka.

Chapter 44   7 to 8 Months (28 to 32 Weeks): Sound Discrimination, Behavioral States

Mugihe c' amayinga 28 akayoya gashobora gutandukanya urusaku rwinshi n'urusaku rukeya.

Mugihe c' amayinga 30, uburyo bwo guhumeka buba busanzwe gahumeka mu kigererenyo gihwanye na 30 kugeza kuri 40%.

Mugihe c'amezi 4 yanyuma yo gutwita, akayoya kerekana gukora ibintu bifite bisobanutse bijana n'ibihe vyo kuruhuka. Iyo myifatire yerekana kwiyongera muburyo budasobanutse imikorere y'iteraniro ry'ibituma umuntu yumva.

Chapter 45   8 to 9 Months (32 to 36 Weeks): Alveoli Formation, Firm Grasp, Taste Preferences

Hafi amayinga 32 amashami nyayo y'ubuhumekero, cangwa "udufuko" tw'utuburungu tw'umuka, dutangura gukura mu bihaha. Tuzakomeza gukura kugeza igihe c'imyaka 8 nyuma y'ivuka.

Mugihe c' amayinga 35 akayoya kaba gafunze igipfunsi.

Akayoya kerekana ibintu binyuranye bituma umwana atakaza guhitamo guhonja nyuma yo kuvuka. Urugero, abavyeyi barya ivyatsi bifite kuba vyoboreza, bituma umwana akunda ibija gusa navyo nyuma y'ivuka. Utuyoya tutagira aho twahuriye n'ibisindisha ntitubikunda.

Chapter 46   9 Months to Birth (36 Weeks through Birth)

Uruyoya rutangura akazi ko gukora uruhuri rw'ibiganisha inzira y'agateganyo hagati y'igi n'uruyoya rwavutse.

Ako kazi kagaragazwa n'ubwivumbagatanye mu kiziba c'inda, bituma umwana avuka.

Guhera igihe co gusama kugeza igihe co kuvyara na nyuma yaho, umubiri w'umuntu wubaka imbaraga mu buryo butaziguye bukomeza. Ubuvumbuzi bushasha muri urwo rutonde burerekana ingaruka ku mwana mu buzima bwe bwose.

Nkuko twashoboye kumva Mu vyerekeranye n'amajambere y'umubiri w'umuntu, ni ingenzi kurinda ubuzima bw'umwana mbere na nyuma yo kuvuka.


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