Skip Navigation

National Geographic Society This program is distributed in the U.S. and Canada by National Geographic and EHD. [learn more]

Multilingual Illustrated DVD [Tutorial]

The Biology of Prenatal Development




CHIDZIDZO CHEBIOLOGY PAKUKURA KWEMWANA MUDUMBU

.Shona


 
Download English PDF  Download Spanish PDF  Download French PDF  What is PDF?
 

The Fetal Period (8 Weeks through Birth)

Chapter 37   9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches

Zera re"fetal period" rinoguma panoberekwa mwana.

Pamasvondo mapfumbamwe, kuyamwa chigunwe kunotanga, iyi ndiyo nguva mwana anenge avekumedza "amniotic fluid".

Pano "fetus" inenge yavekubata zvinhu, kufambisa musoro kuendesa kumberi nekumashure, kushama nekuvhara muromo, kufambisa rurimi, kufemereka nekuzvitatamura.

Tsinga dzekumeso, nedzemukati memaoko, nemukati metsoka dzinenge dzavekunzwa kubatwa.

"Kana ikabatwa zvinyoro-nyoro mukati metsoka," "fetus" inokotamisa magaro nemabvi kanakupeta zvigunwe.

Pano maziso anenge Akanyatsovharwa.

Muhuro munenge mavekuwonekwa, nhengo dzekubudisa izwi uye izvi zvinoreva kuti izwi ravekuzobuda.

Muvanasikana, chibereko chinenge chavekuonekwa uye zvese zvemumhukadzi zvinenge zvavepo, ma "cell" acho anonzi "oogonia", anenge achigadzirwa muma "ovary".

Zvinoratidza kuti munhuyiko zvoonekwawo kuvakomana kana vasikana.

Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints

Kukura kwakakurumidza pakati pemasvondo mapfumbamwe negumi kunowedzera huremo hwemiri zvakanyanya (75%).

Pamasvondo gumi, kubwaira kunenge kwatanga kunokonzera kuti ziso rigone kufamba richitarisa pasi.

"Fetus" inotanga kushama nekuvhara muromo.

"Fetus" zhinji dzinoyamwa chigunwe chekurudyi.

Divi rehura mudumbu hwakabatana neguvhu hwavakudzokera mukati medumbu.

Kusimba kwemapfupa kwavekuitika.

Nzara dzeminwe nezvigunwe dzinenge dzavekutanga kukura.

Minwe yakasiyana-siyana inotanga Kubuda pakupera kwemasvondo gumi. Izvi ndizvo zvinoshandiswa pakuzivisa munhu muhupenyu hwese.

Chapter 39   11 Weeks: Absorbs Glucose and Water

Pamasvondo gumi nerimwechete mhuno nemuromo zvinenge zvanyatsobuda. Sezvinoita nhengo dzemuviri, zvinoshanduka nekukura uye nguva yega-yega inezvainoita pamakuriro emunhu.

Hura hunotanga kuchengeta zvekudya nemvura zvinenge zvamedzwa ne"fetus".

Kuti munhuyiko? zvinogadzirwa pakusangana, zvonoratidza kuti munhuyiko zvinotanga kuonekwa pamurume kana mukadzi.

Chapter 40   3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening

Pakati pemasvondo gumi nerimwe negumi nemaviri huremo hwe:fetus" hunowanda zvakaita (60%).

Pamasvondo 12 ndipo Panopera chidimbu chechitatu chekutanga, kana kuti "trimester", yenhumbu.

Pano zvinopa kuraira zvinodyiwa zvavakuwanikwa mumukanwa.
Panozvarwa mwana, zvekuraira Kudya zvinowanikwa parurimi chete nemukati nechepamusoro pemukanwa.

Pano tsvina inotanga kubuda pamasvondo guminemaviri zvigoramba zvakadaro kusvika masvondo matanhatu.

Tsvina iyi inobuda mu'fetus' nemuvana vacheche inonzi "meconium". Inosanganisa zvinonzi ma"enzyme" anobatsira kuzeya, ma'proteins',uye dzimwewo nhengo dzakafa dzinenge dzichibuda muhura.

Pamasvondo makumi maviri, kureba kwemaoko kunenge kwava kuzokwana kusvika pazera remunhu. Makumbo anotora nguva yakareba kusvika pazera rakakwanira munhu.

Kusara kwemusana nepanhova, muviri wese kana "fetus" yave kuvhunduka ikabatwa.

Zvinoita kutivarume nevakadzi vasiyane zvinotanga kuonekwa. "Fetus" yechikadzi inoratidza kufambisa muromo zvakanyanya kupfuura "fetus" yechirume.

Izvi zvakasiyana nekuvhunduka kunoitika pakutanga, iyi ndiyo nguva mwana anocheukira kuri kubva chekudya uye muromo uchivhurwa. Kucheuka uku kunonzi "rooting reflex" uye kunoramba kuriko mwana azvarwa, uye kunobatsira kuti mwana agone kuwana kunezamu ramai paanenge achiyamwa.

Kumeso kunoramba kuchikura apawo nyama inowanikwa matama otanga kukura mazino achitangawo kumera.

Pamasvondo gumi nemashanu, tsinga dzeropa dze"stem cells" dzinokura dzichiwanda mumwongo wemapfupa. Apa ndipo panogadzirwa ropa rakawanda.

Kufamba-famba kunotanga musvondo rechitanhatu re"embryo", mudzimai ane nhumbu anonzwa kufamba-famba pakati pemasvondo gumi nemana negumi nemasere Chiitiko ichi chinopiwa zita rekuti "quickening".

Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms

Pakupera kwemasvondo 10 ne6,matanho ekurapa anoshandisa zvinobaya zvinenge tsono kana zvimwe pedyo ne'fetus' zvinokanganisa ma "hormone" obva avhunduka achibva aburitsa "noradrenaline", kana "norepinephrine", yosangana neropa. Vana vacheche kana vanhu vakuru vanowanikwawo nezvakadai kana vavhundutswa nekubayiwa.

Munhengo dzekufemesa, mapapu nezvakadaro zvavakutokwana.

Panobuda zvimwe zvichena Zvinodzivirira zvinonzi "vernix caseosa", zvinofukidza 'fetus'yese. "Vernix " iyi inodzivirira ganda kuti risakuvadzwe kana kupiswa ne"amniotic fluid".

Mushure memasvondo 19 ekufamba kwe "fetus" kufema kunotanga, nekurova kwemwoyo kwotanga kutevera nzira yemazuva ese inonzi "circadian rhythms".

Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability

Pamakumi maviri emasvondo chekunzwa, chirimukati-kati menzeve, chinenge chatokwana kuenzana nechemunhu mukuru uye chiri mukatikati menzeve Kubva pano, "fetus" inotanga kuratidza kunzwa zvakawanda.

Bvudzi rinotanga kumera mumusoro.

Zvinodiwa paganda zvavapo zvese, kusanganisa tumvere nezviri pasi peganda.

Pamasvondo makumi maviri ane rimwe kana maviri muchangosangana, mapapu anenge avekukwanisa kufema mweya. Ichi chinhanho chakakosha pakurarama sekuti kurarama kwemwana abuda mudumbu kunokwanisika Pane mamwe ma'fetus' Pane nzira dzanozikanwa nenyanzvi dzanachiremba dzekuti mwana akwanise kurarama kana aberekwa nguva isati yakwana.

Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste

Pakupera kwesvondo makumi maviri anemana maziso anotanga kusvinura uye "fetus" inotanga kubwaira. Kutanga kunzwa, mheremhere kunonyanya kukurumidza kutanga pa "fetus" yechikadzi.

Vanamazvikokota vakawanda vanoti kunzwa mheremhere uku kunogona kukanganisa hutano hwe "fetus". Zvinowanzoitika apa kukanganisa marovero anota mwoyo, "fetus" ichikurumidza kumedza, nekukurumidza kushanduka magariro. Zvinogona kunganganisika zvachose zvinosanganisira kusanzwa zvachose.

Kana "fetus" ichikanganisika pakufema kana kuzarirwa zvakafanana nekufemera mukati nekunze kanokwanisa kuita ka44 paminiti yega

Pachidimbu chekupedzisira chemwedzi mitatu yenhumbu, uropi hunokurumidza kukura uye simba zhinji rinoshandiswa ne "fetus". Kurema kwehuropi kunowanda zvakapetwa kanokwanisa kuita kashanu

Pamasvondo 20 anematanhatu misodzi inotanga kubuda.

Maziso anotanga kunzwa kutosvorwa, pamasvondo makumi maviri nemanomwe Kutosvorwa uku kunoita kuti kupenya kusasvike mukati meziso muhupenyu hwemwana hwese.

Zvese zvinodiwa pakushandisa nhengo dzinonhuhwidza zvinenge zvavakushanda Zvakaongororwa pamapurimicha zvinoratidza kuti kugona kunhuwidza kunotanga pamasvondo makumi maviri nenhanhatu muchangosangana.

Kanapakaiswa chinhu chinonhuwirira mukati me "amniotic fluid" zvinowedzera kumedza kunoitwa ne "fetus". Pane zvinoita kuti, "fetus" ikanganisike kumedza nekunge paiswa zvinovava. Kazhinji kufinyamisa kumeso kunotevera.

Dzimwe nguva pane kunenge kukava makumbo kwakafanana nekufamba,kunoitika kunenge kusvetuka-svetuka.

Iyezvino "fetus" inenge isisina kuwunyana kumeso sezvo mafuta anenge avekuwanikwa mukati meganda. Mafuta anobatsira kuti muviri usatonhorwe Uye kupa simba kumwana kana aberekwa.

Chapter 44   7 to 8 Months (28 to 32 Weeks): Sound Discrimination, Behavioral States

Pakupera kwemasvondo makumi maviri nemasere 'fetus'inokwanisa kunzwa mhere-mhere nezeve-zeve.

Pakupera kwemasvondo 30,kuratidza kufema kunenge kwavekuonekwa uye kwavekuonekwa nguva zhinji mu "fetus" zhinji.

Pamwedzi mina yekupedzisira yenhumbu, "fetus" inoratidza nguva yekutamba igoratidzawo nguva yekuzorora. Izvi zvinoratidza zvakahwanda zviri mukati-kati metsinga dzehuropi.

Chapter 45   8 to 9 Months (32 to 36 Weeks): Alveoli Formation, Firm Grasp, Taste Preferences

Pamasvondo makumi matatu Anemaviri zvinonzi "alveoli", kana zvekufemesa, zvinotanga kukura mumapapu. Izvi zvicharamba zvichikura kusvikira mwana avenemakore 8.

Pamasvondo 35 "fetus" inenge yavekugona kubata.

Pano "fetus" yanga ichiwana Zvakawanda-wanda zvichaita kuti mwana adewo izvozvo kana azvarwa. Pano tingati "fetus" inamai vaidya "anise", chidyo chinopa chiwitsi che"licorice" manakiro, achadawo kudya "anise" kana azvarwa. Vacheche vasina kumboraira "anise" mudumbu havadi kana kuidya.

Chapter 46   9 Months to Birth (36 Weeks through Birth)

'Fetus' ndiyo inotanga kuda kubuda nekubuditsa ma"hormone" akawanda anonzi "estrogen" uye ndipo panotanga kushanduka kwe "fetus" kuita mwana.

Kurwadziwa kwamai kunokonzerwa nekutatamuka kwechibereko, zvinokonzera kuti mwana aberekwe.

Kubva pakusangana Kusvika pakuzvarwa nekukura, makururo emunhu chinhu chisingapere, chinoenderera, uye chisina anoziva. Pane zvitsva zvirikuwanikwa nezvenyaya iyi inoshamisa chaizvo zvinoratidza kukosha kunoita kuchengeta "fetus" ichikura zvinova zvakanaka uye zvinopa hutano hwakanaka.

Kana tichiramba tichiwedzera kunzwisisa kwedu nyaya iyi, zvichatibatsirawo kuti vana vawane utano hwakanaka vasati vazvarwa nekunge vazvarwa.


Add a Comment

Your Name: Log In 3rd-party login: Facebook     Google     Yahoo

Comment: