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The Biology of Prenatal Development




IBHAYOLOGI LEPHATSELENE NEKUKHULA KWEMNTFWANA LOSESESIBELETFWENI SENINA

.Siswati [Swati (siSwati)]


 
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The Fetal Period (8 Weeks through Birth)

Chapter 37   9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches

Sikhatsi sefithasi sichubeka aze atalwe umntfwana.

Emavikini la-9, kuyacalisa kumunya sitfupha futsi ifithasi seyiyakwati kugwinya emantana e-amniyoni.

Ifithasi iyakwati futsi Nekubamba inkhonkhoshela intfo, kuyisa inhloko phambili nasemuva, kuvula nekuvala imihlatsi, kunyakatisa lulwimi, kukhokha umoya, kanye nekutelula.

Tihambisimiva ebusweni, emphameni yesandla, kanye nangaphansi kwetinyawo kuyeva nakukhona lokukutsintsako kancane.

"Ngemuva kwekutsintfwa kancane ngaphansi kwelunyawo," ifithasi itawugoba ingculu kanye nelidvolo futsi ingafinyeta netintwane.

Lujwabu lwemehlo nyalo seluvaleke ngalokuphelele.

Kuchochocho, kuvela kwemisipha yemphimbo kukhombisa kucalisa kwakheka kwemisipha yelivi.

Kumafithasi lamasikati, sibeletfo sesiyabonakala futsi tinhlayiya letisengakakheki tetitfo tekutala,letibitwa ngekutsi yi-ugoniya, tiyaphindzaphindzeka ngekhatsi esibeletfweni.

Titfo tangaphambili tangaphandle Ticalisa kutibonakalisa kutsi temuntfu lomdvuna kumbe lomsikati.

Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints

Kukhula lokukhulu kakhulu emkhatsini wa-9 na-10 wemaviki kwengeta sisindvo semtimba ngalokungetulu kwa-75%.

Emavikini la-10, nangabe utsintsa lujwabu lolungenhla esweni, liso liyagikica libuke phasi.

Ifithasi iyatamula futsi ivamise Kuvula iphindze ivale umlomo.

Emafithasi lamanyenti amunya sitfupha sasekudla.

Tincenye telitfumbu letingekhatsi enkhabeni tibuyela esiswini.

Sekucalile kwakheka kwematsambo lamanyenti.

Tingalo taseminweni netasetintwaneni ticalisa kwakheka.

Imigca lengafanani naleminye yaseminweni ivela ngemuva kwemaviki la-10. Lamaphethini lawa angasetjentiselwa kutfola kutsi umuntfu ungubani imphila yakhe yonkhe.

Chapter 39   11 Weeks: Absorbs Glucose and Water

Emavikini la-11 imphumulo kanye netindzebe sekwakheke ngalokuphelele. Njengobe kwenteka ngato tonkhe letinye tintfo temtimba, kubukeka kwato kutawugucuka kuleso naleso sigaba sekuhamba kwemphilo yemuntfu.

Litfumbu licalisa kudvonsa iglukhozi nemanti lokumitwe yifithasi.

Ngisho naloku bulili bakheka ngalesikhatsi kwakheka imbewu yemuntfu, nyalo titfo tangaphambili tangaphandle setiyehlukaniseka kutsi talomdvuna kumbe talomsikati.

Chapter 40   3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening

Emkhatsini wa 11 na 12 wemaviki, sisindvo sefithasi sikhula cishe 60%.

Emaviki lalishumi nakubili aluphawu lwekuphela kweyekucala incenye yinye kuletintsatfu, kumbe nyangantsatfu wekucala, wekutetfwala.

Tinambitsi letibonakalako Setivumbuke ngekhatsi emlonyeni.
Ngalesikhatsi umntfwana atalwa, tinambitsi titawusala kuphela elulwimini kanye naseluphahleni lwemlomo.

Kuhamba kwesisu kucalisa le emuva emavikini la-12 futsi kuchubeke sikhatsi lisitsi asibe ngemaviki la-6.

Loku kwekucala lokukhishelwa ngaphandle litfumbu lelikhulu lefithasi nemntfwana losandza kutalwa kubitwa ngekutsi yimekhoniyamu. Kwentiwe ngema-enzayimi lagaya kudla, emaphrothini, kanye netinhlayiya letifile lokulahlwe ngumgudvu logaya kudla.

Emavikini la-12, budze betitfo temtimba wangetulu cishe sebufike lapho kumele tikhule tigcine khona nakulinganiswa nebukhulu bemtimba sebuphelele. Ticu temtimba longentasi titsatsa Sikhatsi lesitsi asibe sidzana kufika ebukhulwini lapho kumele tikhule tigcine khona.

Ngaphandle kwemhlane kanye nelukhakhayi, umtimba wefithasi yonkhe nyalo uyanyakata nakukhona lokuyitsintsa kancane.

Umehluko ekwakhekeni kwemuntfu loya ngekutsi buyini bulili bemntfwana ucalisa kuvela. Sibonelo, emafithasi lamasikati akhombisa kunyakata kwemihlatsi kakhudlana kunalamadvuna.

Esikhundleni sekubuyela emuva njengobe sibone phambilini, nyalo nakukhona lokuyitsintsa ngasemlonyeni kubangela kutsi ijikele ngalapho itsintseka ngakhona iphindze ivule nemlomo. Lokunyakata loku kubitwa Ngekutsi the "kutfungatsa" futsi kuchubeka ngisho asatelwe umntfwana, kwelekelele umntfwana losandza kutalwa kutsi atfole ingono yenina ngalesikhatsi amunyiswa libele.

Buso buyachubeke buyakhula njengobe emafutsa langakadvonswa ngumtimba enta kutsi tihlatsi ticalise kugcwala futsi sekucalisa nekwakheka kwematinyo.

Emavikini la-15,tinhlayiyasicu letakha ingati tiyafika futsi tiyaphindzaphindzana emkantjeni. Lokunyenti kwakheka kwetinhlayiya tengati kutakwenteka lapha.

Ngisho naloku kunyakata kucalisa ku-embriyo lena-6 wemaviki, make lotetfwele ucalisa kuva kunyakata kwefithasi emkhatsini wa-14 na-18 wemaviki. Ngalokwetayelekile, lesehlakalo lesi sibitwa ngekutsi kukhahlela.

Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms

Emavikini la-16, tinchubo letifaka ekhatsi kufaka inyalitsi esiswini sefithasi kubangela kuphatseka kabi kwemahomoni lebese akhipha inoradrenalini, kimbe inorephinefrini, lengena engatini. Bantfwana labasandza kutalwa kanye nebantfu labadzala bakhombisa kuphatseka ngendlela lefanako nakukhona intfo lebafakwa yona ngekhatsi emtimbeni.

Eluhlelweni lwekuphefumula, sihlahla semphimbo nyalo cishe sesiphelele.

Nyalo kukhona intfo lemhlophe lesivikelo, lebitwa ngekutsi yiveniksi khasiyosa, lembonye ifithasi. Iveniksi ivikela sikhumba kutsi singaphatfwa kabi ngemantana e-amniyoni.

Kusukela ku-19 wemaviki kunyakata kwefithasi,kuphefumula, kanye nesivinini sekushaya kwenhlitiyo kucalisa kulandzela luhlelo lunye lwamalanga onkhe lolubitwa gekutsi sigci sesikhatsi lesilinganako.

Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability

Emavikini la-20 indlu yendlebe, lekusitfo sekuva, sesilingana nesemuntfu lomdzala ngebukhulu ngekhatsi kwendlebe yangekhatsi leseyiphelele kukhula. Kusukela nyalo, ifithasi itawukhombisa kuva tinhlobo temisindvo letiya ngekwandza.

Tinwele tiyacalisa kumila esikhunjeni sasenhloko.

Tonkhe tincwencwe tesikhumba kanye netakhiwosetikhona, kufake ekhatsi timbonjana teboya esikhunjeni kanye nemadlala.

Emavikini la-21 kuye kula-22 ngemuva kwekwakheka kwembewu yemuntfu, emaphaphu ayakhona kuphefumula umoya. Loku kutsatfwa njengebudzala lobucinile ngobe ngalesikhatsi lesi ematfuba ekuphila ngaphandle kwesibetfo aba makhudlwana kumafithasi latsite. Inchubekelembili lendze kutekwelapha lefike ngekulandzelana yenta kutsi kube yimphumelelo kutsi tikhone kuphila tinswane letitelwe ngembikwesikhatsi.

Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste

Emavikini la-24 lujwabu lwemehlo luyavuleka futsi ifithasi iyacwabita nakukhona lokuyetfusako. Lokunyakata lokwenteka nakukhona umsindvo lomkhulu longakalindzeleki kusheshe kube khona kumafithasi lamasikati.

Labenta luhlolo babika kutsi kuba semsindvweni lomkhulu kungaba nemphumela lomubi emphilweni yefithasi. Umphumela lomubi lovela masinyane ufaka ekhatsi kwenyuka kwelizinga lekushaya kwenhlitiyo sikhatsi lesidze, kugwinya kanyenti,kanye nekugucuka masinyane kwendlela ifithasi letiphetse ngayo. Imiphumela lemibi lengavela esikhatsini lesitako ifaka ekhatsi kungeva etindlebeni.

Lizinga lekuphefumula kwefithasi lingenyuka lize lifike ku-44 wemahlandla lalandzelanako ekudvonsa nekukhipha umoya ngeliminithi.

Ngekuhamba kwanyangatsatfu wesitsatfu wekutetfwala, kukhula masinyane kwengcondvo kudla ngetulu kwa-50% wemandla lasetjentiswa yifithasi. Sisindvo sengcondvo senyuka emkhatsini wa-400 na 500%.

Emavikini la-26 emehlo akhipha tinyembeti.

Tinhlavu temehlo tibona kukhanya le ekucaleni emavikini la-27. Lokunyakata loku kukala bunyenti bekukhanya lobufinyelela kurethina iphilo yemuntfu yonke.

Tonkhe tincenye letidzingakalela kutsi umuntfu akwati kunuka tiyasebenta. Lucwaningo lolwentiwe ebantfwaneni labatelwe ngembikwesikhatsi luveta kutsi umntfwana ukwati kuva kutsi kukhona lokunukako le ekucaleni emavikini la-26 ngemuva kwekwakheka kwembewu yemuntfu.

Kufaka intfo lenongotelako emantaneni e-amniyoni kwenyusa lizinga ifithasi legwinya ngalo. Kuphikisa loko, kuba khona kwehla kwelizinga ifithasi legwinya ngalo nangabe kufakwe intfo lebabako. Lokulandzela loko kuvamisa kuba kuntjintja kwesimo sebuso.

Ngekusebentisa luchungechunge lwekunyakata ngekutsatsa tinyatselo lokunjengekuhamba,ifithasi ishaya goboluphonjwana.

Ifithasi ayisabonakali kushwaphana kakhulu njengaloku lamanye emafutsa langakasetjentiswa ngumtimba akhela ngaphansi kwesikhumba. Emafutsa adlala indzima lebalulekile ekugcineni lizinga lekushisa kwemtimba likahle nasekubekeni emandla ngemuva kwekutsi umntfwana atelwe.

Chapter 44   7 to 8 Months (28 to 32 Weeks): Sound Discrimination, Behavioral States

Emavikini la-28 ifithasi iyakwati kwehlukanisa emkhatsini wemsindvo loshaya etulu naloshayela phansi.

Emavikini la-30, kunyakata kwekuphefumula sekwetayeleke kakhudlwana kubonakala futsi kwenteka 30 kuye ku-40% wesikhatsi kufithasi leyetayelekile.

Ngekuhamba kwetinyanga leti-4 tekugcina tekutetfwala, ifithasi iba nesikhatsi lapho inyakata shengatsi iyati kutsi yentani lokulandzelwa sikhatsi sekuphumula. Letindlela leti tekutiphatsa tikhombisa indlela lecake ngayo nalechubeke njalo yandza yeluhlelo lolukhulu lwekuphefumula.

Chapter 45   8 to 9 Months (32 to 36 Weeks): Alveoli Formation, Firm Grasp, Taste Preferences

Emavikini cishe la-32, i-alviyoli sibili, kumbe tinhlayiya "tetikhwama" temoya, ticalisa kukhula emaphashini. Itawuchubeka yakheke kuze kube minyaka le-8 umntfwana atelwe.

Emavikini la-35 ifithasi seyibamba kahle icinise.

Kubonakala shangatsi ifithasi letfolwe tintfo letinhlobonhlobo isesesiswini kuyenta itsandze tinongo letitsite ngemuva kwekutalwa. Sibonelo, lawo mafithasi bonina bawo bebadla i-anisi, lentfo leyenta kutsi ilikhorayisi inambitseke ngalendlela lenambitseka ngayo, akhombisa kutsandza i-anisi ngalesikhatsi satelwe. Bantfwana labasandza kutalwa labangakayitfol i-anisi basesesiswini bona abayitsandzanga i-anisi.

Chapter 46   9 Months to Birth (36 Weeks through Birth)

Ifithasi ngiyo lecalisa Umsebenti wekutalwa kwayo ngekutsi ikhiphe linani lelikhulu lehomoni lebitwa ngekutsi yi-estrojeni ngaleyo ndlela icalise ingucuko yekusuka ekubeni yi-fithasi ibe ngumntfwana losandza kutalwa.

Kutalwa kwemntfwana kwenteka ngekufinyela ngemandla kwesibeletfo, lokugcina ngekutalwa kwemntfwana.

Kusukela ekwakhekeni kwembewu kuze kufike ekutalweni kwemntfwana kanye nangale kwaloko, kwakheka kwemuntfu yintfo legucugucukako, lechubekako, kanye nalecakile. Lwati lolusha loluvelako mayelana nalesehlakalo lesi lesimangalisakothis luchubeke njalo nekukhombisa indlela kwakheka kwefithasi lekubaluleke ngayo ekuphileni kahle kwemuntfu imphilo yakhe yonkhe.

Njengaloku kucondzisisa kwetfu kwakheka kwemuntfu losengakatalwa kuya ngekutfutfuka, kanjalo nelikhono letfu ekwenteni imphilo lenhle ibe ncono - kuto totimbili tikhatsingembikwekutalwa nangemuva kwekutalwa kwemntfwan.


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