HTML Example of DVD Outline

  1. Chapter 20 – 6 Weeks: Motion and Sensation
    1. Motion 1
      1. The embryo begins to make spontaneous and reflexive movements 1
      2. Such movement is necessary to promote normal neuromuscular development 1
    2. Sensation 2
      1. A touch to the mouth area causes the embryo to reflexively withdraw its head 2
  2. Chapter 26 – 7 Weeks: Hiccups and Startle Response
    1. Leg movements can now be seen, along with a startle response. 3
  3. Chapter 32 – Rolling Over
    1. Rolling Over 4
      1. Pediatric textbooks describe the ability to "roll over" as appearing 10 to 20 weeks after birth 4
      2. This impressive coordination is displayed much earlier in the low gravity environment of the fluid-filled amniotic sac 4
      3. Only the lack of strength required to overcome the higher gravitational force outside the uterus prevents newborns from rolling over 4
    2. The embryo is becoming more physically active during this time
    3. Motions may be:
      1. Slow or rapid
      2. Single or repetitive
      3. Spontaneous or reflexive
    4. Head rotation, neck extension, and hand-to-face contact occur more often 5
    5. Touching the embryo elicits: 6
      1. Squinting 6
      2. Jaw movement 6
      3. Toe pointing 6
  4. Chapter 37 – 9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches
    1. Swallows 7
      1. By 9 weeks, thumb sucking begins 7
      2. By 9 weeks, the fetus can swallow amniotic fluid 7
    2. Sighs and Stretches 8
      1. The fetus can: 8
        1. Grasp an object 8
        2. Move the head forward and back 8
        3. Open and close the jaw 8
        4. Move the tongue 8
        5. Sigh 8
        6. Stretch 8
      2. "In response to a light touch on the sole of the foot," the fetus will bend the hip and knee and may curl the toes 9
  5. Chapter 38 – 10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints
    1. Rolls Eyes 10
      1. By 10 weeks, stimulation of the upper eyelid causes a downward rolling of the eye 10
    2. Yawns 11
      1. The fetus yawns and often opens and closes the mouth 11
    3. Most fetuses suck the right thumb 12
  6. Chapter 40 – 3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening
    1. Rooting reflex 13
      1. In contrast to the withdrawal response seen earlier, stimulation near the mouth now evokes a turning toward the stimulus and an opening of the mouth 13
      2. Persists after birth, helping the newborn find his or her mother 13
    2. Quickening 14
      1. Definition: Quickening is the first fetal movement felt or perceived by a pregnant woman. 14
      2. Movement begins in the 6-week embryo 14
      3. A pregnant woman first senses fetal movement between 14 and 18 weeks after fertilization. 14
  7. Chapter 43 – 6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste
    1. Somersaults 15
      1. Through a series of step-like leg motions similar to walking, the fetus performs somersaults 15


1Birnholz et al., 1978; Hogg, 1941; Sorokin and Dierker, 1982; O’Rahilly and Müller, 1999a; Natsuyama, 1991; Visser et al., 1992; Kurjak and Chervenak, 1994; Humphrey and Hooker, 1961; Humphrey and Hooker, 1959; Humphrey, 1970; Humphrey, 1964; de Vries et al., 1982.

2Goodlin, 1979.

3de Vries et al., 1988; Visser et al., 1992.

4Bates, 1987; Liley, 1972; Humphrey, 1970; Goodlin and Lowe, 1974; de Vries et al., 1982.

5de Vries et al., 1982.

6Humphrey, 1964; Humphrey, 1970.

7Liley, 1986; Liley, 1972; Petrikovsky et al., 1995; de Vries et al., 1982; Campbell, 2004.

8Robinson and Tizard, 1966; de Vries et al., 1982; de Vries et al., 1982; Valman and Pearson, 1980.

9Robinson and Tizard, 1966; Valman and Pearson, 1980.

10Goodlin, 1979; Humphrey, 1964.

11de Vries et al., 1982.

12Hepper et al., 1991.

13Mancia, 1981; Bates, 1979.

14Sorokin and Dierker, 1982; Timor-Tritsch et al., 1976; Spraycar, 1995; Leader, 1995.

15Liley, 1972.


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Bates B. 1987. A guide to physical examination. 4th ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Birnholz JC, Stephens JC, Faria M. 1978. Fetal movement patterns: A possible means of defining neurologic developmental milestones in utero. American Journal of Roentgenology. 130(3):537-540.

Campbell S. 2004. Watch me grow: A unique 3-dimensional week-by-week look at your baby’s behavior and development in the womb. New York: St. Martins.

de Vries JIP, Visser GHA, Prechtl HFR. 1982. The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects. Early Human Development. 7(4):301-322.

de Vries JIP, Visser GHA, Prechtl HFR. 1988. The emergence of fetal behaviour. III. Individual differences and consistencies. Early Human Development. 16(1):85-103.

Goodlin RC, Lowe EW. 1974. Multiphasic fetal monitoring, a preliminary evaluation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 119(3):341-357.

Goodlin RC. 1979. Care of the fetus. New York: Masson.

Hepper PG, Shahidullah S, White R. 1991. Handedness in the human fetus. Neuropsychologia. 29(11):1107-1111.

Hogg ID. 1941. Sensory nerves and associated structures in the skin of human fetuses of 8 to 14 weeks of menstrual age correlated with functional capability. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 75:371-410.

Humphrey T, Hooker D. 1959. Double simultaneous stimulation of human fetuses and the anatomical patterns underlying the reflexes elicited. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 112:75-102.

Humphrey T, Hooker D. 1961. Reflexes elicited by stimulating perineal and adjacent areas of human fetuses. Transactions of the American Neurological Association. 86:147-152.

Humphrey T. 1964. Growth and maturation of the brain - some correlations between the appearance of human fetal reflexes and the development of the nervous system. In: Dominick P, Purpura DP, Schadé JP, editors. Progress in brain research, Vol 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 93-135.

Humphrey T. 1970. The development of human fetal activity and its relation to postnatal behavior. Reese HW, Lipsitt LP, editors. Advances in child development and behavior. New York: Academic. 5:1-57.

Kurjak A, Chervenak FA, editors. 1994. The fetus as a patient. New York: Parthenon.

Leader LR. 1995. Studies in fetal behaviour. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 102(8):595-597.

Liley AW. 1972. The foetus as a personality. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 6(2):99-105.

Liley AW. 1986. The foetus as a personality. Fetal Therapy. 1(1):8-17.

Mancia M. 1981. On the beginning of mental life in the foetus. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. 62:351-357.

Natsuyama E. 1991. In utero behavior of human embryos at the spinal-cord stage of development. Biology of the Neonate. 60(Suppl 1):11-29.

O’Rahilly R, Müller F. 1999a. The embryonic human brain: an atlas of developmental stages. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Petrikovsky BM, Kaplan GP, Pestrak H. 1995. The application of color Doppler technology to the study of fetal swallowing. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 86(4 Pt 1):605-608.

Robinson RJ, Tizard JPM. 1966. The central nervous system in the new-born. British Medical Bulletin. 22(1):49-55.

Sorokin Y, Dierker LJ. 1982. Fetal movement. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 25(4):719-734.

Spraycar M, editor. 1995. Stedman's medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Timor-Tritsch IE, Zador I, Hertz RH, Rosen MG. 1976. Classification of human fetal movement. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 126(1):70-77.

Valman HB, Pearson JF. 1980. What the fetus feels. British Medical Journal. 280(6209):233-234.

Visser GH, Mulder EJ, Prechtl HF. 1992. Studies on developmental neurology in the human fetus. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 18(3-4):175-183.