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Multilingual Illustrated DVD [Tutorial]

The Biology of Prenatal Development




BIOLOGIA OWO KUKULA KWO'MWANA MULUBUTO LWA NYINA

.Luganda [Ganda]


 
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The Embryonic Period (The First 8 Weeks)

Embryonic Development: The First 4 Weeks

Chapter 3   Fertilization

Mululimi lwa biologia "omuntu atandika okukula mukuwaka, omukaazi no'musaaja buli omu aleta abimusatu ku 'chromosomes'zabwe nga bu 'cell' bwabwe obuzala.

Ka 'cell' ko'mukaazi kagitibwa eggi oba 'egg' era neb u elinnya etifu lili 'oocyte'.

Era neb u 'cell' bwomusaaja bu manyidwa nga 'sperm' naye mululimi olufutifuti buyibwa 'spermatozoon'.

Eggi lwo'mukaazi bwe litebwa okuva mu 'ovary' mumitenda egiyitibwa 'ovulation', eggi oba 'oocyte' ne 'spermatozoon' bwegata kino kibawo mukamu kubu seke bwa mukaazi obuyitibwa 'fallopian tubes'.

Obuseke oba 'uterine tubes' bugata 'ovary' zo'mukaazi ku lubbuto oba nabana wo'mukaazi.

Ekivamwekyo nga bu 'cell' bwegase kiwitibwa 'zygote,' makulu nti waliwo okwegata.

Chapter 4   DNA, Cell Division, and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF)

'Zygote' oba neb u 'chrososomes' ana mumukaaga duno bwebu kikilila obulamu obusoka obwejawulo era eno eringa nlani yo'muntu mubutondebwe. Eno pulani sinziggu mu bu 'molucules' obwekute ate nga bunyole owitibwa 'DNA'. Muno mwemuli amateka gwo'kula Kwo mubiri gwona'ogwo muntu.

Bu 'DNA' 'molecules' bufanana nga edaala elinyoledwa liwitibwa 'double helix' omululimi oluna sayansi. Olwandi bade nga ozuda lwe daala olimu bu 'molecules' bubiri nga bwe kute, oba 'bases' owitibya 'guanine', Cytosine(syitsini), adanenine (adenayini), ne themine(tayanmani).

'Guanine' yegata na 'cytosine' yoka, ate 'adenine' neyegata ne 'thymine'. Bu ka 'cell' ko'muntu kabamu obuwubi basaatu obwa bu 'base pairs'.

'DNA'wa ka 'cell' akamu mulimu amakulu maagi akwata kumunto era singa yolekebwa mubiga mbo, nga enyukuta yoka esoka eya bu 'base' ye wandiki dwa kiba kitwetagisa akakade kamu nekitundu akempadila!

Era singa bu 'base' bugalimizibwa wansi kamu kukamu, 'DNA' owa ka 'cell'akamu alina obuwanvu bwa futi satu ne kitundu kimu kyakusatu oba mita emu.

Singa tusobola okuzi ngulula 'DNA' yena mumubiri gwo'muntu omukululu obusirivu ekikumi, oluzingululo luvamu obuwumbi nkaaga mubusatu obwa mayiro. Kino kilinga okuva wano no kutuka ku mjuba ate nokuda emirundi bisatu muana.

Oluvanyuma lwa sawa abiri munya no kutuka kusawa asatu nga okuwaka kuwede ka 'zygote' kamaliliza omulimu gwo'kwegabizamu ekiyitibwa. Kino kibayo kiyibya emitenderu ja 'mitosis', okusoka ka'cell'akamu kega'zamu bibiri ebiri nebyegbizamu bina ne kyeyo ngera mumaso byekityo.

Oluvanyuma lwe sawa 24 paka ku sawa 48 nga okuwaka kutandi se, olubuuto luyinza okukukaka sibwa nga 'hormone' esangi dwa mumusaayi gwo mukaazi kiyitibwa 'early pregnancy factor'.

Chapter 5   Early Stages (Morula and Blastocyst) and Stem Cells

Oluvanyu lwe naku satu okutuka kunaku nya nga okuwaka kuwede, bu 'cell' bwa 'embryo'obuba bwegabizamu bufuka bwetolovu era 'embryo' kakno eyitibya 'morula'.

Oluvanyuma lwenaku 4 okutuka kunaku 5 egeri yakasawo kuwambako bu 'cell' buno kakano 'embryo' eyitibya 'blastocyst'.

Bu 'cells' munda wako ka 'blastocyst' buyitibwa 'inner cell mass' era mwemuua ebitundu nga omutwe omubiri nebitundu ebira ebyo mubiri ebyo mugaso eli okukula kwomuntu.

Bu 'cell' obubamu 'inner cell mass' buyitibwa 'embryonic stem cell' kubanga bulina obusobozi obwo kufuka mu buli emu kwa bu 'cells' obwebika ebibiri obubera mumubiri gwo muntu.

Chapter 6   1 to 1½ Weeks: Implantation and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

Bwebumala okuyita mu kaseke akiyitibwa akanaba na oba 'uterine tube', munaku ezisoka 'embryo' eyigira mukasenge kasuka 'inner wall' akanabana. Emitendera gino egiyitibwa okwesiba (implatantion) kutandika munuka mukaaga era nekugwa wakati wenaku kumi ne kumimanya nga okuwaka kuwede.

Bu 'cell' bwo mu 'embryo' butamdika okukula busubole okuleta 'hormone' eyuitibwa 'human chorionic gonadotropin'/ hcg, eno elabibwa nga omukaazi akebelwa oba'li lubuuto.

Eno 'HCG' yelagila 'maternal hormone' okuziwiza ogenda mumwezi okwabakaazi(menstrual cycle), kino ne kiyamba egwako oba olubuuto okugenda mumaso.

Chapter 7   The Placenta and Umbilical Cord

Nga okwe-simba kuwede, bu 'cell' kukusakate kua-kasawo kano aka 'blastocyte' bufukamu ekitundu kua 'placenta', kino kibanga olutimbe olugata 'maternal' ne'ntabula yo musaayi mu 'emrbyo'.

Eno 'placenta' yeleta omuuka, ogwo kusa era ne'birisa neb u 'hormones' gatako ne'dagala omwana lweyetaga ebyo mugaso mukukula kwo'mwana era elongosa sako no twala kalonda yena atetagisa; era eziyiza no musaayi gwa maama okwegata no'gwo mwana.

Era ekola ne bu 'hormones' sako no kulaba nga ebu gume lwa 'embryo' ne lwa 'fetal' lyelyo elisade era okubuguma kwabyo kulina okusuka ko katuno okwa maama.

Omwana owo'kubiri oba(Placenta) ewuliziganya ne omwana mulubuuto nga eyifamu 'vessels' obwa kundi oba 'umblical cord'.

Obusobozi byo kuwagi omwana nga akula obwa omwana owo'kubiri bufanana ko no bwo obwa 'intensive care' oba okulabililwa enyo mu awauro elwo mulemmbe.

Chapter 8   Nutrition and Protection

Oluvanyuma lwa wiiki bu 'cell' obwa 'inner cell mass' bwekolamu oba bufuka engeri yembudi birieyitibwa 'hypbolast' ne 'epiblast'.

'Hypoblast' yevamu oba yefuka mu akasawo kenjuba oba 'yolk sac', maama okuwa omwana ebirisa munaku ezi sokera dala eza 'embryo'.

Bu 'cell' okuva mu 'epiblast' bwebufukamu engeriya kabubi oba'kasawo akayiitibya 'amnion,' muno ka 'embryo' era ne dako ka 'fetus' mwebikulila paka okuzalibwa.

Chapter 9   2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation

Mu wiiki biri ne kitundu ka 'epiblast' kabakakuze era obubiri obwo mugaso busatu, oba obubiri oyitabwa 'germ layers,' aka 'ectoderm,' 'endoderm,' naka 'mesoderm'.

'Ectoderm' evamu ebitundu bwomubiri bingi gamba nga obwongo, olugongogongo oba (spinal cord) obusimo bwo mubiri, olususu, enjala, ne'nuiri.

'Endoderm' yefuka mu akabili abika kumawugwe, era ne omubu ogutwa emere ne ne nebwenda, era evamu ne bitundu bwo'mubiri ebyomugaso gamba nga ekibumba ne kalululwe oba 'pancrease'.

'Mesoderm' yo evamu oba efukamu omutima, ensigo, amagumba, 'cartilage' oba magumba'magonuu, ebinywa, bu 'cells' byo musaayi, ne bitundu byo mubiri ebilala.

Oluvanyuma lwa wiiki satu obwongo bugabanyibwamu ebitundu bisatu ekiyitibwa obwo obusokelwa ko oba 'forebrain' obwongo'bwo mumakati oba 'midbrain,' era ne obwongo 'bwe mabega oba 'hindbrain.'

Okukula kwebi kwata kukusa ne bwokukozesa no'kumenya menya emere mumubiri kuba kugenda mumaso.

Nga bu 'cell' bwo musaayi bwebweyoleka mu kasawo kenjuba oba 'yolk sac,' ne obuseke bwo musaayi, nabwo bukula okubuna 'embryo' yona, era no'mutima omwagagauo nagwo guba gutuze.

Kumpi mukisera kyekimu, omutima ogubagukula amangu gwe yumba-ko era ebisenge ebyawufu bitandi okweyoleka oba okwe zimba.

Omutima gutandi okukuba mu wiiki satu no'lunaki nga okuwaka 'fertilization' kuwede.

Otambula kwo musayi kwekusooka okutandiika okukola, oba ebitundu byo mubiri ebi kwata gaa no'musaayi, kino eberewo'kudukana kwomubiri kusobole kuberawo.

Chapter 10   3 to 4 Weeks: The Folding of the Embryo

Mubanga nga ya wiiki saatu oba nnya, kakano 'plani' yomubiri etandikwa wo gwi obwongo, olugongogongo oba'spinal cord' ne omutima gwa 'embryo' byangu byakwawula era no'kulaba Mu kasawo kenjuba 'yolk sac.'

Okukula kwo mutiima amangu enyo kuleta okwewumba okwa 'embryo.' Omitendera gino gigata ebitundu bya 'yolk sac' mu 'lining' oba akakuta emitendera joku menya menya emere mumubiri muno mwemuva ekifuba kyo munju ne bitundu ebyawansi oba 'abdominal cavities' ebya munju akula.


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